World History Semester 1 Study Guide
Terms in this set (125)
a region of rich farmland that curves from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf centered on the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
the area that lies between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Southwest Asia
a Sumerian temple made of sun-dried brick that was dedicated to the chief god or goddess of a particular city-state
a political unit that includes a town or a city and the surrounding land controlled by it
the belief in many gods
a family of rulers whose right to rule is hereditary
King of Akkad in Mesopotamia; he is considered the founder of Mesopotamia and conquered many cities along the middle Euphrates to norther Syria. He established trade routes with the Indus Valley, the coast of the Oman islands, and the shores of the Persian Gulf
King of Babylonia; he was a brilliant military leader who brought all of Mesopotamia into the Babylonian Empire. He is known for his uniform code of 282 laws, the earliest known set of written laws
a group of semi-nomadic people who migrated from southern Russia to the Indian subcontinent around 1700 BC
Chaldean king of Babylon from 605 to 562 BC; he rebuilt Babylon into a beautiful city notes for its famed Hanging Gardens
Cyrus the Great
King of Persia and founder of the Persian Empire; he defeated the Median army and united the Persians and Medians under his rule
King of Persia from 522 to 486 BC; he reorganized and strengthened the Persian Empire by reforming the army and the government
governors of ancient Persia
King of Persia; his armies invaded Greece but were eventually defeated by the Greeks
religious teacher and prophet of ancient Persia; he founded a religion known as Zoroastrianism based on the idea that people have free will and can act as they choose
the belief that the world is controlled by two opposing forces, good and evil
a triangular region formed at the mouth of a river by deposits of silt
rocky stretches in a river marked by rapid currents or waterfalls
First pharaoh of Egypt; he is credited with uniting Upper and Lower Egypt and is said to have founded the city of Memphis, the capital of unified Egypt
ruler of ancient Egypt
a government ruled by religious leaders who claim God's authority
a highly structured organization, often governmental, managed by officials
Queen of ancient Egypt; she took the throne in place of her stepson, Thutmose III, and during her reign, focused on temple-building projects and trade
Ramses the Great
Pharaoh of Egypt; he led an army against Hittite invaders of Egypt. He ruled Egypt with extravagance and built more temples and monuments than any other Egyptian pharaoh
tall, thin pillars with pyramid-shaped tops
the process of preserving the body with chemicals after death
a form of ancient writing in which picture symbols represent sounds
a paper-like material made by ancient Egyptians from the stem of the reedy papyrus plant, which grows in the Nile River delta
a granite stone found in 1799 that bears an inscription in hieroglyphics, demotic character, and Greek; gave the first clue to deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphics
a large landmass that is part of a continent but is considered an independent entity either geographically or politically
seasonal winds in India
sacred writings of the Indo-Aryans
leaders of ancient cities in India
the four social classes in Vedic society
social classes in the ancient Indian class system
the largest religion in India; Hindus believe that everything in the world is a power of Brahman, the single great universal being; they also believe in reincarnation and strive to break free from the cycle of rebirth
in Hinduism, the belief that after one dies, the soul is reborn into a different form
in Hinduism, the totality of a person's good and bad deeds and the way in which they affect that individual's fate in the afterlife
in Hinduism, the escape from the cycle of rebirth
in Hinduism, the religious and moral duties of an individual
a series of physical and mental exercises that teaches people how to focus their bodies and minds
a religion in India, founded about the same time as Buddhism and in reaction to some Hindu practices; believers renounce worldly things, embrace self-discipline, and practice nonviolence
in Jainism, nonviolence and respect for all living things
a religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama, which teaches the Four Noble Truths and following the Eightfold Path
Founder of Buddhism; also known as Siddhartha Gautama; he gave up princely life to search for truth and enlightenment. He established the Buddhist religion based on the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path.
Four Noble Truths
in Buddhism, the guidelines that are the essence of the Buddha's teaching: that life is suffering, that desires cause suffering, that the annihilation of desires can relieve suffering, and that the way to relieve suffering is to follow the Eightfold Path
the Middle Way and part of the Four Noble Truths that the Buddha taught as the means of nirvana or enlightenment
in Buddhism, the release from the world and the achievement of peace and enlightenment
basic Buddhist teachings of the Eightfold Path; it advises people to live in moderation; avoiding the extremes of either comfort or discomfort in the search for nirvana
fine yellowish soil blown from the desert regions
a gathering of nobles around a monarch
inscribed animal bones used to predict the future
Mandate of Heaven
the Chinese belief that royal authority is the result of divine approval
the rise and fall of the Chinese dynasties
a belief system based on the teachings of Chinese philosopher Confucious that stressed treating one another humanely and honoring one's family
a system of ideas and beliefs based on the teachings of Chinese thinker Laozi, who believed that people should live a simple, honest life and not interfere with the course of natural events
a city-state of ancient Greece
a walled, high area surrounding a polis
an open area that served as a meeting place and market in early Greece city-states
in ancient Greece, state slaves
foot soldiers in ancient Greece
a government run by the people
Athenian statesman; he introduced the first civil democracy in Greece and created the Boule.
a strong man who seized power by force and claimed to rule for the good of the people
Ancient Greek ruler often called the "father of democracy." He increased the size of the council that governed Athens to 500, and he reorganized Athenian tribes on a geographical rather than familial basis.
the type of governing system where all people vote directly on an issue
a chief of state of ancient Athens
a military formation composed of rows of soldiers standing shoulder to shoulder carrying pikes or heavy spears
Athenian statesman; he encouraged the spread of democracy in Athens and the growth of the city-state's power
Greek philosopher of Athens; his teaching style was based on asking questions. He wanted people to question their own beliefs. He was arrested and condemned to death for challenging authority.
Greek philosopher; a student of Socrates, he started a school in Athens called the Academy. In The Republic he describes an ideal society run by philosopher-kings.
Greek philosopher and student of Plato; he taught that logic was the tool for any necessary inquiry; his work lalter became the basis for medieval scholasticism.
clear and ordered thinking
the process of making inferences
Greek poet, he wrote the epic poems the Illiad and the Odyssey, which tell stories set during and after the Trojan War.
a type of poetry that gained its name from the lyre, an instrument that played while the poetry was sung
Greek historian; his most famous work is The Histories, which describes major events of the Persian Wars
Greek historian of Athens; he wrote The History of the Peloponnesian War. He is regarded as the first critical historian and is often ranked as the greatest historian of antiquity.
Alexander the Great
King of Macedon and conqueror of much of Asia; he is considered one of the greatest generals of all time
the blending of Greek cultures with those of Persia, Egypt, and Central Asia following the conquests of Alexander the Great
Greek geometer; he created practical book on geometric forms and mathematics. His work formed the basis for later European studies in geometry.
Greek astronomer and geographer; he calculated the circumference of the globe using careful observations and simple geometry
Greek mathematician and inventor; he was known for his work in geometry, physics, and mechanics
a political system in which the citizens of a region elect representatives to run the government
a class of powerful landowners in ancient Rome who controlled the government and society
farmers or workers, who made up a large part of the population in ancient Rome
the assembly place of an ancient Roman city
a political structure
a body of legislators
the chief executives elected to run the government in ancient Rome
a political leader holding unlimited power
the guy and his brother Gaius Sempronius Gracchus; Roman statesmen; they tried to help ex-soldiers in Rome by redistributing public land to small farmers. The Roman elite reacted violently to these actions and led mobs that killed the brothers.
Roman general and politician; he eliminated property restrictions for acceptance into the army and began to accept anyone who wished to join the Roman army. He made armies into private forces that became devoted to their generals.
Lucius Cornella Sulla
Roman general and politician; he became consul in 88 BC, led a civil war against Marius and his followers, emerged victorious, and became dictator.
Roman general and one of the greatest military leaders in history; he conquered most of Gaul and was name dictator for life in Rome. He was later murdered by a group of senators who opposed his enlarged powers.
a ruling body of three members
First emperor of Rome; he established the Second Triumverate with Mark Antony and Lepidus. He created the imperial system of administration, established new coinages, and encouraged trade.
a period of peace in Roman Empire lasting from the beginning of Augustus's reign until the death of Marcus Aurelius
a home in the country
the site of chariot races in ancient Rome
the family father
priests in ancient Rome who specialized in interpretation of the natural phenomena sent by the gods
Greek physician; he wrote several volumes that summarized all the medical knowledge of his day.
One of Alexander the Great's generals; he founded the dynasty that ruled Egypt for nearly 300 years.
manmade channels used to transport water; ancient Romans built these impressively
the language of ancient Rome
a form of law based on a written code of laws
a religion based on the teaching of Jesus of Nazareth
in Judaism, a savior sent by God
Jesus of Nazareth
First-century Jewish teacher and prophet; he founded Christianity and taught about kindness and love of God. His teachings spread through the Roman Empire and, eventually, the rest of the world
followers of Jesus
the 12 chosen disciples of Jesus; they were the first Christian missionaries
people put to death for their beliefs
First-century Jewish teacher and prophet; he founded Christianity and taught about kindness and love of God. His teachings spread through the Roman Empire, and eventually, the rest of the world.
a ceremony of some Christian denominations that commemorates Jesus' last supper with his disciples
a high-ranking official of the Roman Catholic Church who oversees a group of churches in a particular region or city
title given to the heads of the Roman Catholic Church
increased prices of goods and services combined with the reduced value of money
Roman emperor from 284 to 305; he divided the Roman Empires into eastern and western halves
Early Christian church father and philosopher; his writing helped shape Christian doctrine for centuries.