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all chemical reactions performed by cells


synthesis metabolic reactions


decomposition metabolic reactions

energy efficiency

40 % of the energy in glucose is ultimately transferred to ATP

3 chemical pathways

glycolysis, krebs cycle and electron transport chain


occurs in cytoplasm, is anaerobic, and produces 2 pyruvic acids, 2 ATP, and 2 reduced coenzymes

krebs cycle

occurs in mitochondria, is aerobic, and produces CO2, ATP, and reduced coenzymes

citric acid cycle

another name for the kreb cycle

electron transport chain

occurs in mitochondria, is aerobic, and produces ATP and water


adding oxygen to something or removing hydrogens

cellular respiration

glucose+oxygen-->water+carbon dioxide+38 ATP+heat

pyruvic acid

makes ATP, CO2 and NADH in the krebs cycle

anaerobic respiration

acid fermentation, alcohol fermentation, and occurs when oxygen is not present

lactic acid fermentation

transport chain has no oxygens at the bottom so 2 hydrogens are put on pyruvic acid

alcohol fermentation

reaction gives off 2 CO2 and 2 ethanol


creation of glycogen


conversion of glycogen back to glucose


creation of triglycerides


breakdown of triglycerides


formation of glucose from non-carbohydrate


turning one amino acid into a different one

metabolic rate

rate of energy expenditure by the body

BMR (basal metabolic rate)

how much energy expended simply by keeping alive

factors affecting BMR

size, age, sex, stress, and nutritional state


any molecule used by the body for energy, components of organic molecules and metabolic reactions

6 classes of nutrients

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals and water


used almost exclusively for energy, used by cells as glucose, stored as glycogen or converted to fat, and 45-65% daily intake

complex carbohydrates

bread, legumes, rice, pasta, starches, vegetables

simple carbohydrates

fruits, milk, vegetables, refined sugar products, minerals and fiber


triglycerides, used for energy, no more than 15-25% daily intake

unsaturated fat

double bonds present lacking hydrogen bonds

saturated fat

carbon has single hydrogen bonds

trans fat

unsaturated fat that has been saturated artificially


meat, fish, dairy products, legumes and some plants


digested to single amino acids, used for protein synthesis, and 20-30% daily intake

animal proteins

complete proteins that are supplied in proper ratio

plant proteins

incomplete proteins that are not in proper ratio


made by 20 amino acids absorbed in correct proportion


organic compounds required for metabolic functions


act as coenzymes like NAD, FAD

vitamin a,d,e,k

fat soluble

vitamin c,b

water soluble

fat soluble vitamins

absorbed with fats, stored in adipose tissue, can cause hypervitaminosis


too much of a vitamin

water soluble vitamins

absorbed with water, excreted through urine, cannot be stored


inorganic molecules needed by the body for structural components and for metabolism

6 major minerals

Ca, K, Cl, Na, Mg, I

specific dynamic action

amount of energy needed to process food

BMR (basal metabolic rate)

rate at which Kcal are spent for heart beat, breathing, maintenance of body temperature, and sending nerve pulses

basal metabolism

energy needed when body is resting

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