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50 terms

metabolism

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metabolism
all chemical reactions performed by cells
anabolism
synthesis metabolic reactions
catabolism
decomposition metabolic reactions
energy efficiency
40 % of the energy in glucose is ultimately transferred to ATP
3 chemical pathways
glycolysis, krebs cycle and electron transport chain
glycolysis
occurs in cytoplasm, is anaerobic, and produces 2 pyruvic acids, 2 ATP, and 2 reduced coenzymes
krebs cycle
occurs in mitochondria, is aerobic, and produces CO2, ATP, and reduced coenzymes
citric acid cycle
another name for the kreb cycle
electron transport chain
occurs in mitochondria, is aerobic, and produces ATP and water
oxidation
adding oxygen to something or removing hydrogens
cellular respiration
glucose+oxygen-->water+carbon dioxide+38 ATP+heat
pyruvic acid
makes ATP, CO2 and NADH in the krebs cycle
anaerobic respiration
acid fermentation, alcohol fermentation, and occurs when oxygen is not present
lactic acid fermentation
transport chain has no oxygens at the bottom so 2 hydrogens are put on pyruvic acid
alcohol fermentation
reaction gives off 2 CO2 and 2 ethanol
glycogenesis
creation of glycogen
glycogenolysis
conversion of glycogen back to glucose
lipogenesis
creation of triglycerides
lipolysis
breakdown of triglycerides
gluconeogenesis
formation of glucose from non-carbohydrate
transamination
turning one amino acid into a different one
metabolic rate
rate of energy expenditure by the body
BMR (basal metabolic rate)
how much energy expended simply by keeping alive
factors affecting BMR
size, age, sex, stress, and nutritional state
nutrient
any molecule used by the body for energy, components of organic molecules and metabolic reactions
6 classes of nutrients
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals and water
carbohydrates
used almost exclusively for energy, used by cells as glucose, stored as glycogen or converted to fat, and 45-65% daily intake
complex carbohydrates
bread, legumes, rice, pasta, starches, vegetables
simple carbohydrates
fruits, milk, vegetables, refined sugar products, minerals and fiber
lipids
triglycerides, used for energy, no more than 15-25% daily intake
unsaturated fat
double bonds present lacking hydrogen bonds
saturated fat
carbon has single hydrogen bonds
trans fat
unsaturated fat that has been saturated artificially
proteins
meat, fish, dairy products, legumes and some plants
proteins
digested to single amino acids, used for protein synthesis, and 20-30% daily intake
animal proteins
complete proteins that are supplied in proper ratio
plant proteins
incomplete proteins that are not in proper ratio
proteins
made by 20 amino acids absorbed in correct proportion
vitamins
organic compounds required for metabolic functions
vitamins
act as coenzymes like NAD, FAD
vitamin a,d,e,k
fat soluble
vitamin c,b
water soluble
fat soluble vitamins
absorbed with fats, stored in adipose tissue, can cause hypervitaminosis
hypervitaminosis
too much of a vitamin
water soluble vitamins
absorbed with water, excreted through urine, cannot be stored
minerals
inorganic molecules needed by the body for structural components and for metabolism
6 major minerals
Ca, K, Cl, Na, Mg, I
specific dynamic action
amount of energy needed to process food
BMR (basal metabolic rate)
rate at which Kcal are spent for heart beat, breathing, maintenance of body temperature, and sending nerve pulses
basal metabolism
energy needed when body is resting