Chapter 13 the global commons

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Thomas Malthus
Predicted that population growth would soon outstrip increases in the food supply leading to s host of social, economic, and political crises
Club of Rome
A group of social and natural scientists screamed in 1968 to examine the future predicament of humankind
Limits of growth
Shaped the debate over the interrelated issues of global population growth, resources depletion, and environmental degradation
Renewable resources
Resources whose supply can be increased within a meaningful time frame
Nonrenewable resources
Limited or finite resources that cannot be replaced once used
Doubling time
The number of years it takes population to double at a given rate of growth
Carrying capacity
Term employed by the club if Rome to indicate the maximum level of population that the worlds resources and environment could sustain
Zero population growth
A situation in which a populations crude birth rate equals the crude death rate
Peak oil
The theory that the worlds production of oil is about to reach its peak and decline thereafter resulting in higher prices that can have damaging effects on the world economies
Global warming
The problem of rising global temperatures brought on by the emission of greenhouse gases
Greenhouse gases
Gases resulting from the burning of fossil fuels, especially carbon dioxide that build up in the upper atmosphere. It is the accumulation of these gases that leads to global warming
The tragedy of the commons
A metaphor on which actors fail to restrain their use of common resources, eventually depleting those resources for all. Often used to conceptualize the issues of global population growth, resource consumption, and environmental degradation
International food bank
Proposed as a means of responding to famines around the world. The idea was to create a ready stock of food that could be shipped rapidly to areas in need, this saving thousand s of lives. Opposed by Garrett Hardin because he thought such aid would increase the population of areas that were already overpopulated
Population escalator
Garrett Hardin's term to describe the effect of an international food bank. Refers to the steady increases in population that would result every time external assistance was offered to des with recurring famines
Neotraditionalists
Those, like the club of Rome and Garrett Hardin, who believe that the world is rapidly approaching its limits to growth
Modernists
Those who reject the analysis presented by the club of Rome. Argue that even if there is a limits to the population the world can support, it is not even close to that limit. Generally have a great faith in sciences ability to solve problems and overcome what are often portrayed as limits to growth
Theory of demographic transition
Claims that periods of great population growth tend to be followed by a leveling off of population. Be same technological, economic, and social changes that cause population to grow in the first place by reducing death rates usually have long term effects that result in declining birth rates
International regimes
A broad term used to characterize the institutions, norms, practices, and decision-making procedures that have been created to shape international behavior in given issues areas
The global commons refers to
The interrelated issues of global populations on growth, resource depletion, and environmental degradation
What is the key controversy of the global commons
Whether or no the global commons is in danger
Thomas Malthus was concerned primarily with
Food supply
What impact did the industrial revolution have on the concerns about population growth
It was creating more jobs and more resources so concerns were quieted
When did the concerns arise again?
1950's and 1960's
What were the reasons for the revival of concerns after the industrial revolution
Baby boomers, rise of modern environmentalism, and oil shortages
What was the club of Rome mainly concerned with?
Finite resources and reaching the earths carrying capacity
What is the "limits to growth"
Work done by the club of Rome in 1972 that got the ball rolling on the concerns and predicted that we would reach carrying capacity in 2072
What is the rule of 70 (doubling time)
70 divided by the growth rate equals how many years it will take for the population to double
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