The Science of Psychology-Chapter 2
Terms in this set (77)
The media reported that college students are not as happy as those who are not in college. You are happy. You are in college. Is there something wrong with you?
No-The media may not have reported all the pertinent details of the research findings. The results of a group study are not always relevant to an individual.
A random sample is a sample that gives every member of the _____ an equal chance at being selected.
Researchers must use experiments to determine whether ____ ____ exist between variables.
Correlational research is about establishing relationships between ____.
The term ____ in correaltional research does not imply causation.
What is a variable?
Anything that can change.
Which of the following are steps in the scientific method?
Drawing conclusions. Observing some phenomenon. Formulating hypotheses and predictions.
The third step in the scientific method is the need to collect and analyze data, that is, the testing of hypotheses by conducting ____ research by collecting and analyzing data.
Descriptive statistics are used to ____; while inferential statistics are use to ____.
describe and summarize data; draw conclusions about data
Which of the following are reasons that researchers might use correlational research?
To investigate real world events. To use one variable to predict the value of another variable. To conduct research in situations where it would not be ethical to carry out an experiment in another way.
Be used to make predictions about future observations. Explain why certain things have happened. Tell psychologists about the relationships between variables on a conceptual level.
Generalizing research results of a group study to a(n) ____ may encourage a person to falsely apply the results to their own situation.
Media reported that a research study found that most of us can not react when threatened by an attacker. What specific information might be important to know about the details of this study?
Information about the characteristics and size of the sample
A ____ is an idea arrived at logically from a theory. It can be thought of as an educated guess, and it can be tested.
____ are used to analyze and interpret the data collected from a research study.
The purpose of using ethical guidelines when conducting research is
To protect participants best interests. To evaluate the ethical nature of research. To ensure the participants are not harmed.
Which of the following statements are true about descriptive research?
Descriptive research can tell us how happy people are. Descriptive research cannot tell us what makes people happy. Descriptive research cannot tell us why people are happy.
Because psychology is the scientific study of human behavior it
should pertain to all humans.
____ research serves the purpose of determining the basic dimensions of a phenomenon and defining what it is or how often it occurs; but it cannot provide causal information.
Which of the following represent variables that can be directly measured by correlational research?
exam scores, ethnic backgrounds, biological sex
Correlational variables involves studies that are concerned with identifying the relationships between two or more ____ in order to describe how they change together.
A researcher is curious about people's satisfaction with their lives. What type of research might they choose to conduct to answer this question?
Which of the following choices represents a sample group from a population of women in the workplace only?
All female executives.
A correlational coefficient is most often represented in data by the letter
Why have ethnic minorities been deliberately excluded from selected research samples historically?
Since their scores did not fit neatly into the distribution, researchers excluded them to keep them from skewing their data.
Which statements are true regarding popular media reports of psychological research?
Media often only present sensationalistic and dramatic research findings.
What is survey research?
A standard set of questions used to obtain people's self-reported attitudes or beliefs about a particular topic.
There are two kinds of validity in experimental designs, ____ validity and ____ validity.
Why are ethical guidelines used by researchers?
So that the research does not physically harm the participants. So that the research proposal is accepted by the review board. So that the research does not cause the participant emotional distress.
In order for observations to be effective, they must be ____ (systematic/subjective).
The ____ is the measure of central tendency used most often.
A cross-sectional research study was done to look at the association between obesity and watching television. Which of the following are likely findings of this research?
Findings indicated how many participants were obese and watched television. Findings did not indicate if obesity causes television watching.
A single number that tells you the overall characteristics of a set of data is called
a measure of central tendency
In ____-____ procedure, neither the experimenter nor the participant know who is receiving the treatment drug and who is only receiving a placebo.
What is a drawback of the mean?
The mean is easily affected if the data contains a few extreme scores.
Observing behavior in real-world setting is known as
Which of the following can be considered a population viable for a research study?
Laboratory mice, children below the age of 12, African-American males
Longitudinal research can suggest potential ____ relationships.
A ____ is a broad idea can be used to make predictions about future observations.
A ____ ____ involves a psychologist, often a therapist, observing one person over a long period of time.
Now that the researchers have gathered data what do they do next?
Researchers would analyze their data to see if it supports their hypothesis. Researchers would analyze the findings to see if their results tell us about the theory used to guide their study.
A ____ ____ is a factor that can change in an experiment in response to changes in the independent variable.
(T/F): Descriptive statistics reveal the specific characteristics of data and the similarities between them.
For a person to give informed consent to participate in a research study which of the following should they be given?
Information about any known risks or benefits that they might experience as part of their involvement. Information about what they will be doing in the study. That they have the right to withdraw from the study at any time.
What is a random assignment?
The assignment of participants to research groups by chance.
Which of the following are characteristics of a placebo?
Harmless, inert substance. Given to participants of a study instead of a presumed active agent.
A ____ is an actor who participates in a psychological experiment pretending to be a subject but in actuality is working for the researcher.
If the experiment methods used are found to be biased and illogical then the research does not have ____ validity.
Which of the following are measures of central tendency?
mean, median, mode
An operational definition is an objective description of how a research variable is going to be ____ and observed.
When we say that something has statistical ____ it means that the differences observed between two groups are large enough that it is highly unlikely that those differences are merely due to chance.
Why is it important that survey questions be clear and understandable?
Because the participants responses must clearly reflect their feelings about the topics. Because the questions must clearly measure the specific topic being studied. Because the questions are used to define the operational variable.
Data is particularly useful when used to mathmatically
One drawback of the ____ study is the inability to generalize the results to the broader population.
____ or experimental research provides researchers a way to control many aspects of the situation.
Lou assigns a number to identify each of his participant's responses. Lou is protecting the participants'
confidentiality, identity, anonymity
A(n) ____ variable is the manipulated experiment factor in an experiment.
____ describe how much the scores in a sample vary from one another.
Measures of dispersion
Research participant bias is
the influence of research participants' expectations on their behavior within an experiment.
(T/F): Most psychological studies do not generate a considerable amount of numerical data.
An experimental design actually reflects the real-world issue it was meant to address. This design is considered to have ____ validity.
Inferential statistics give a statement of ____ about the differences observed between two or more groups.
In quasi-experimental study why is participant assignment or a control group not randomly determined? Select all statements that apply.
This type of research is used to examine participants who are already in groups. This type of research is used to assess differences between existing groups. Assigning participants to random groups may be unethical or impossible.
A researcher is studying how trauma might affect a person's day to day functioning. What types of research might the designer chose to conduct this study?
experimental, correlational, descriptive
One benefit of the ____, a statistical measure of central tendency, is that it is particularly useful in cases in which information is desired about preference or popularity.
____ assignment reduces the likelihood that the results are due to other preexisting differences.
A correlation of ____ means there is no relationship between two variables.
An extraneous variable that has not been measured that accounts for the relationship between two other variables is known as
a third variable problem.
Results are considered reliable if they can be
A therapist takes a full history of a client and finds she has exhibited symptoms of depression since she was five years old. What type of descriptive research is this an example of?
The number of magnitude of a correlation tells a psychologist about the ____ of a relationship.
Which of the following are measures of dispersion?
standard deviation, range
In actual practice, random sampling ____ results that are representative of an entire population.
Researchers studying the long-term effects of an antidepressant have asked participants every 6 months for the last decade to undergo blood work, a physical, and a short mental status exam, They are now compiling their research. What type of research have they been conducting?
a longitudinal design
____ refers to all of the information researchers collect in a study.
Historically, many research projects only contained ale participants, even when the researchers were studying drugs that would ultimately be used only by women. This systematic use of men in research, even when women would have been a more appropriate choice, demonstrates
A meta-analysis does not allow researchers to
define and determine basic dimensions for ongoing phenomena