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MCB CH19: Integrating Cells into Tissues
MCB CH19: Integrating Cells into Tissues
Terms in this set (92)
5 classes of animal tissue
1. Epithelial Tissue
2. Connective Tissue
3. Muscular Tissue
4. Nervous Tissue
Note: Various cell types are arranged into specialized tissues and organs.
2 types of cell adhesion
1. Cell-to-cell adhesion
2. Cell-to-matrix adhesion
Occurs through specialized integral membrane proteins called cell adhesion molecules (CAMS)
Figure 19-1 part 2:Cell-Cell Adhesions
Results from binding of adhesion receptors in the membrane to the surround extracellular matrix (ECM)
-A "glue" or "meshwork" made of proteins and polysaccharides
Figure 19-1 part 3: Cell-Matrix Adhesions
Cell adhesion interaction allow for cells to _____ into _____ tissues and provide a _____ pathway between cells.
4 major families of CAMs
2. Immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily
CAMs are _____ _____ of different protein domains
4 types of CAM interactions
1. Homophilic Binding
2. Heterophilic Binding
3. Homotypic Adhesion
4. Heterotypic Adhesion
Interactions between that involve same CAMS
Interactions between cells involve different CAMs
Adhesive interactions involving same type of cells
Adhesive interactions involving different type of cells
CAM's can be distributed over the regions where two plasma membranes contact and cluster into discrete patches or spots called _____ _____ that facilitate communication between cells.
FIgure 19-1 part 1: Cell Junctions
Cell-cell adhesion can be very tight and long lived (2 examples)or can be short, weak interactions (1 example)
1) Nerve cells in the spinal column
2) Metabolic cells in the liver
1) Movement of cells of the immune system moving through a blood vessel
_____ effects: Cell's surroundings influence shape and function (signaling)
_____ effects: Cell shape and function (signaling) influence the cell's surroundings
Cell-cell adhesions: Two types of interactions
1) Intracellular, cis (lateral) interactions
2) Intercellular, trans interaction
Extracellular, cis (lateral) interactions: extracellular or cytosolic (or both) domains move laterally to form _____ or higher ordered structures
(cell-cell adhesion interactions)
Cell-to-cell adesions interactions: Intercellular, trans interactions
CAMs on one cell bind to the same type or different type of CAMs on another cell
Figure 19-3: Cell-Matrix Adhesions
Special type of glycoproteins located in the extra cellular matrix (ECM)
Important class of proteins that form fibers, found in the ECM.
Soluble multiadhesive matrix proteins (Name 4) (ECM)
Fibronectin, laminin, nidogen, entactin
Ratio of cell volume to matrix can widely (connective tissue composed mostly of ____)
Main function of the ECM
3 specialized functions of ECM
1. Provides strength to teeth, bond, and tendon.
2. Cushioning in cartilage
3. Adhesion in nearly all tissues
The ECM contains many extracellular signaling molecues needed for _____ and _____.
The ECM facilitates cell ____ during _____ development.
Figure 19-7: CAMs and Adhesion Receptors Play Role in Signaling
CAMs and Adhesion Receptors Play Role in Signaling
____ and ____ of different animal tissues directly depends on the specific cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion interactions.
_____ _____ are ancient and highly conserved.
Certain CAMs and ECM proteins are very similar in humans and _____.
Protein families of closely related proteins.
2 mechanisms for diversity
1. Multiple genes that arose from duplication of an ancestral gene and subsequent divergent evolution. (ch. 6)
2. Alternative splicing of the RNA transcript from a single gene. (ch. 8)
Organs are usually covered by an _____.
Sheetlike layer of epithelial cells.
Polarized structure of the epithelium.
Basal and lateral may be very similar and referred to as a BASOLATERAL surface.
Blood Vessel epithelium
Stratified squamus (non-keratinized)
Figure 10-9. Types of Epithelium
Epithelial cells connect to each other and the extracellular matrix by _____ _____.
Dense clusters of CAMs.
4 roles of specialized junctions
1. Strength and rigidity
2. Cell-to-cell communication
3. Control movement of ions and small molecules across cell layers
4. Pipeline to carry ions and small molecules between the cytoplasm of adjacent cells.
3 classes of cell junctions
Anchoring junctions and tight junctions have a ____ part structure.
Anchoring/tight junctions: _____ proteins in the plasma membrane that connect one cell to the next (CAMs) or the ECM (adhesion receptors)
Anchoring/tight junctions: _____ proteins that connect CAMs or adhesion receptors to the cytoskeletal filaments and signal transduction molecules.
Figure 19-9 Cell Junctions
Table 19-2 Cell Junctions
Cadherins Mediate Cell-Cell Adhesions in _____Junctions and _____.
Figure 19-12: Cadherins Mediate Call-Cell Adhesions in Adherence Junctions and Desmosomes
Cadherins Mediate Call-Cell Adhesions in Adherence Junctions and Desmosomes
E-Cadherin is lost during _____-_____ transition & _____ progression.
Conversion of non-motiles epithelial cells into motile mesenchymal cells. (precursor cells for other tissues)
Snail Transciptional Repressor
Controls the expression of E-cadherin.
3 types molecules, abundant in the ECM of all tissues, that adhesion receptors bind to
2. Collage fibers
3. Soluble multiadhesive matrix proteins
Proteoglycans are a group of _____ that _____ cells and _____ a variety of extracellular molecules.
Collage fibers provide _____ strength and _____.
Soluble multiadhesive matrix proteins ____-____ cell-surface _____ receptors and other ECM components.
Underlayment for most types of cell groups.
Basal lamina structure varies depending on the tissue. Four proteins common to all basal lamina are:
1. Type IV collagen
_____ cross-links components of basal lamina
_____ is the principle multiadhesive matrix protein
Binding agent for collagens, other matrix proteins, polysaccharides, cell-surface adhesion proteins, signaling molecules (e.g. hormones)
_____ is heterotrimeric, has a high molecular weight of 820 kDa, contains many isoforms, is calcium-dependent and can affect binding of steroids and integrins.
Laminin: _____ domains at _____-terminus of the alpha subnit bind specific carbohydrates on the cell surface.
Figure 19-21a: Laminin
Type _____ is the primary collage in basal lamina.
Note: More than 20 types of collagen found in the basal lamina of various tissues.
Collagen are homo-____ or hetero____ proteins (collagen alpha chains) with a _____-helical structure, with an abundance of _____, _____, and _____
trimeric, triple, glycine, proline, and hydoxyproline
Collagen: Each strand is twisted into a _____-handed _____-helix.
Collagen: _____ strands wrap around to form a _____-handed _____ helix.
3, right, triple
_____ cross-links components of the basal lamina and cell surface receptors.
The major secreted proteoglycan in basal lamina.
Perlecan is a multi-domain core protein (~470kDa), made up of _____ distinct domains including _____ and _____ domains.
5, LG, Ig
Perlecan name is derived from globular repeats resembling...
"string of pearls"
Due to multi-domain nautre, it binds ECM components, cell surface receptors, growth factor ligands, etc.
_____ collagens are the major firbrous proteins in the the ECM of connective tissues.
Type I, II, III are _____ collagens.
Due to its abundance, type _____ collagen was first isolated and characterized.
Type I collagen: Structural unit is a long (300 nm), thin (1.5 nm dia) _____ helix consists of two _____ and one ____ chains.
triple, a1, a2
Type I collagen: Polymer is called _____ _____ which aggregate into large bundles called _____ _____.
collage fibrils, collagen fibers
Type I and Type II collagens associate with _____ collagens to form structures.
In _____, type _____ collagen connect muscles to bones.
Tendons can be stretch without breaking due to extreme _____ _____ (stronger than steel).
Type I collagen
Type II collagen is found in _____.
_____ are proteins covalently linked to a specialized class of polysacchardes called lycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and are important in development as modulators or signaling pathways.
Lycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are _____ polymers of repeating _____. One is usually _____ acid or _____ and the other is ______ or _____.
long disaccharide, uronic acid (D-glucuronic acids or L-iduronic acid), D-galactose, N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine
GAGs are _____ charged.
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