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Renal and Acid/Base Balance
Terms in this set (27)
insensible water loss
water loss that we are normally unaware of, either through the skin or exhalation of humidified air
Other names for Vasopressin
Arginine vasopressin or AVP, or antidiuretic hormone ADH
where does countercurrent exchange occur in the kidney?
it occurs between the loop of henle and the vasa recta
atrial natriuretic peptide
enzyme that catalyzes acid/base reactions
H+ is buffered in the urine by
ammonia and phosphate ions
what cell functions in acidosis disturbances
Type A intercalated cells in collecting duct
what cell functions in alkalosis disturbances
Type B intercalated cells in collecting duct
Pair acidosis and alkalosis with hyper/hypokalenia
Three ways that the body compensates for acid/base disturbances
ventilation, renal secretion and buffers
Three pressures in the renal corpuscle
hydrostatic pressure-fluid flow
osmotic pressure due to higher proteins in glomerulus
fluid pressure-due to having to displace fluid that was already in the bowmans capsule
what anatomical parts influence GFR?
the juxtaglomerular apparatus
macula dense cells sense distal tubule flow and release paracrines that affect afferent arteriole diameter
this causes the afferent arteriole to constrict, hydrostatic pressure in glomerulus decreases and GFR decreases
secrete renin when blood volume and blood pressure is low
sense distal tubule flow and send paracrine signals when GFR decreases
plasma concentration at which saturation occurs
secretes organic anions in proximal tubule, used tertiary active transport, Na+-K+-ATPase, NaDC
fancy word for urination
how does glucose enter and exit the small intestine?
enters by SGLT and exits on GLUT2
what is the disaccharide of glucose and what enzyme digests it?
maltase breaks it down into two molecules of glucose
feed forward mechanism in digestion
chyme in the small intestine (GIP and GLP-1 for carbohydrates) trigger endocrine reflexes. In this case, it triggers the release of insulin from the pancreas.
different enzymes catalyze forward and reverse reactions
example: the synthesis of glucose and glycogen are influenced by insulin and glucagon
excess glucose converted to fat (fed state, insulin)
glucose converted to glycogen in fed state (insulin)
glycogen converted to glucose (fasted state, glucagon)
non-carbohydrate precursor converted into glucose (fasted state, glucagon)
What processes to insulin ignite?
glycogenesis, lipogenesis, increase glucose oxidation, increase protein synthesis
What processes does glucagon ignite?
glycogenolysis, lipolysis, gluconeogenesis, increase ketogenesis
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