What is a Criminologist?
They apply the scientific method to the study and analysis of crime and criminal behavior
What is Criminology?
The scientific study of the nature, extent, cause and control of criminal behavior. it is an interdisciplinary science
What is classical criminology?
Theoretical perspective suggesting that 1) people have free will to choose criminal or conventional behaviors; 2) people choose to commit crime for reasons of greed or personal need 3) crime can be controlled only by the fear of criminal sanctions
SEVERE, CERTAIN AND SWIFT
What is rational choice theory?
the view that crime is a function of a decision-making process in which the potential offender weighs the potential costs and benefits of an illegal act
What is the three strikes & you're out policy?
laws require the state courts to hand down mandatory periods of incarceration for up to life in prison to persons who have been convicted of a serious criminal offense on three or more separate occasions.
(the rationale for its use relies on both general deterrence and incapacitation.)
What does the just desert model suggest?
suggests that retribution justifies punishment because people deserve what they get for past deeds. Punishment based on deterrence or incapacitation is wrong because it involves an offender's future actions, which can't accurately be predicted.
What is recidivism, incarceration, & deterrence?
recidivism- repetition of criminal behavior
incarceration-confinement in jail or prison
deterrence- the view that criminal sanctions should be so powerful that offenders will never repeat their criminal acts
What is social learning theory?
the view that people learn to be aggressive by observing others acting aggressively to achieve some goal or being rewarded for violent acts
What is the "twinkie defense"?
some trait theorists believe that biochemical conditions, including both those that are genetically predetermined and those that are acquired through diet and environment. Dan White claimed that his behavior was precipitated by an addiction to sugar-laden junk foods. his "twinkie defense" prompted a California jury to find him guilty of the lesser offense of diminished-capacity manslaughter rather than first-degree murder
Criminals sometimes neutralize wrongdoings by maintaining that the victim "had it coming" this is an example of what type of neutralization.
denial of the victim
What is labeling theory?
or social reaction theory, the view that people become criminals when they are labeled as such and accept the label as a personal identity
Gottfredson & Hirschi trace the root cause of poor self-control to____?
internal and external forces
The uniform crime report indicates that ____ of all murders and about two-fifths of all robberies involve firearms.
What is manslaughter?
a killing committed in the heat of passion or during a sudden quarrel that provoked violence
What is the difference between a serial killer and a mass murder?
a serial killer is a person who kills three or more persons in three or more separate events
a mass murder involves the killing of four or more victims by one or a few within a single event
What are examples of victimless crimes?
some participants may have been coerced into their acts. "dehumanized--turned into objects and commodities"
defined: public order crime that violates the moral order but has no specific victim other than society as a whole
What is the definition of paraphilia? Frotteurism? Voyeur?
bizarre or abnormal sexual practices that may involve nonhuman objects, humiliation, or children.
frotteurism- rubbing against or touching a non-consenting person in a crowd, elevator or other public area
voyeurism-obtaining sexual pleasure from spying on a stranger while he or she disrobes or engages in sexual behavior with another
What is the difference between deviance and crime?
crime- an act, deemed socially harmful or dangerous, that is specifically defined, prohibited, and punished under the criminal law
deviance- behavior that departs from the social norm but is not necessarily criminal
What is white collar crime?
illegal acts that capitalize on a person's status in the marketplace. White-collar crimes may include theft, embezzlement, fraud, market manipulation, restraint of trade and false advertising
What is corporate crime?
(organizational crime) powerful institutions or their representatives willfully violate the laws that restrain these institutions from doing social harm or require them to do social good
corporate crimes are socially injurious acts committed to further the business interests of people who control companies
(ex: false advertising, restraint of trade and price fixing)
What is subcultural theory?
Albert Cohen said in his argument that delinquent behavior of lower-class youths is actually a protest against the norms and values of middle-class US culture.
What is differential association?
the view that people commit crime when their social learning leads them to perceive more definitions favoring crime than favoring conventional behavior.
read basic principles of
the writings of Karl Marx have had a great impact on -----, which faults the economic system producing the conditions that lead to high crime rates
According to the structural perspective, crime rates are a function of ---- forces such as neighbors are a function of conditions, cultural factors, and norm conflict
which of the following situations reflects an act of deviance as opposed to a crime?
a person who withdraws from family after joining a religious cult
regardless of economic and marital status, which factor has the greatest influence on crime rates
referring to the ecology of crime, when is crime most likely to happen?
on July 1st with a temp of 80 degrees
---- refers to a victim's physical weakness or psychological stress that renders them incapable of resisting or deterring crime
which victimization theory claims that victims may initiate, either actively or passively, the confrontation leads to their victimization?
victim precipitation theory
rational choice theory has roots in the ----- school of criminology developed by the italian social think Cesare Beccaria
according to the rational choice approach, the decision to commit crime is structured by
the presence of crime encouragers and absence of crime discouragers
---- reflects the view that criminality is a product of abnormal biological or psychological traits
according to -----, for a variety of genetic and environmental reasons, peoples brains function differently in response to environmental stimuli
which theory focuses on the urban conditions, such as high unemployment and school dropout rates explain crime?
social disorganization theory
according to social structure theory, the root cause of crime can be directly traced to
socioeconomic disadvantages that have become embedded in American society
social process theories share one basic concept. which is it?
all people, regardless of their race, class, or gender, have the potential to become delinquents or criminals
social control theory suggest that
crime occurs when the forces that bind people to society are weakened or broken
social reaction theory suggests that
people become criminals when significant members of society label them as such
religion and belief impact criminal behavior. Even children in high crime areas are better able to resist drug use if they
attend religious services
Edwin Sutherland's differential association theory states that
criminal behavior is learned like any other behavior
according to conflict theorists, societal conflict promotes crime by
encouraging greater use of government resources by the poor
----- are behaviors outlawed because they are a threat to the general well-being of society and challenge accepted moral principles
public order crimes
people who seek to control or criminalize deviant behaviors in accordance with their own way of thinking are called
the movement to ban gay marriage in California that led to the passage of Proposition 8 is an example of a/an
what is sociobiology
the view that human behavior is motivated by inborn biological urges to survive and preserve the species
criminologists view the process of becoming a criminal as a learning experience. They theorize that law violators must learn and master techniques that enable them to neutralize conventional values and attitudes, which enables them to drift back and forth between illegitimate and conventional behavior
**even the most committed criminals and delinquents are not involved in criminality all the time
- denial of responsibility: young offenders sometimes claim that their unlawful acts are not their fault--that such acts result from forces beyond their control or are accidents
- denial of injury: stealing viewed as borrowing and vandalism is considered mischief that has gotten out of hand
- denial of the victim: crime victim "had it coming"
- condemnation of the condemners: an offender views the world as a corrupt place with a dog-eat-dog code
a form of culture conflict experienced by lower-class youths because social conditions prevent them from achieving success as defined by the larger society.