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47 terms

WH 9 World Religions

Mr. Voorhees
STUDY
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Shinto
"the way of the gods," a religion based on belief in supernatural beings called kami
Buddhism
religion whose followers seek enlightenment and an end to human suffering
Buddha
founder of Buddhism; translated as Enlightened One
Four Noble Truths
beliefs described by Buddha that explain the connections between life, desire, and suffering
Eightfold Path
the way to find the Middle Way: right view, attitude, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, and concentration
Nirvana
a state of peaceful existence free from suffering
Middle Way
a life lived in moderation, avoiding extremes of comfort and discomfort in the search for enlightenment
Hinduism
one of the world's oldest religions, practiced by most people in India today reincarnation-
Hindu
belief that the atman (soul) will be released from the body after death and later reborn in another; also called Samsara
Karma
the sum effect of a person's deeds and actions during life
Moksha
escape from the cycle of rebirth, considered by Hindus to be the ultimate goal of human existence
Dharma
set of spiritual duties and obligations for Hindus
Yoga
a series of physical and mental exercises that aid meditation
Jainism
religion founded by Hindus who broke away because they believed moksha could be achieved through giving up worldly goods and controlling one's actions
Ahimsa
nonviolence; idea that is central to Jain teaching
Christianity
a religion based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth
Messiah
a spiritual leader who, according to prophecy, would restore the ancient Kingdom of David
Jesus of Nazareth
a spiritual leader who taught people to seek forgiveness for their sins disciples followers
Apostles
twelve disciples chosen by Jesus
Martyrs
people who suffer death for the sake of their faith, inspiring others to believe
Paul
Jewish apostle who helped spread Christianity in the eastern Mediterranean region, formerly called Saul
Eucharist
a religious ceremony that commemorated Jesus's last supper
Bishop
a priestly official who oversaw church affairs in a particular city, had authority over other priests in the region
Pope
bishop of Rome
Judaism
the religion of the Hebrews
Torah
most sacred text of Judaism Abraham father of the Hebrew people covenant a solemn agreement
Patriarch
ancestral"fathers"
Moses
Hebrew leader who led his people out of Egypt
Exodus
the journey of the Hebrew people out of Egypt, led by Moses Diaspora the scattering of the Jews outside of Canaan
Monotheism
the belief in one God
Bedouins
nomadic Arab peoples who lived in bands in the Arabian Peninsula's desert
Muhammad
founder of Islam
Hegira
Muhammad's journey from Mecca to Medina
Islam
religion founded by Muhammad; literally "to surrender"
Muslims
followers of Islam
Qur'an
sacred text of Islam, considered Allah's direct revelation
Five Pillars of Islam
obligations required of all Muslims
Mosque
name for the building where Muslims worship
Jihad
word that can be translated as "struggle for the faith" or "holy war" and can also mean the struggle to defend the Muslim community or convert people to Islam
Exodus
the journey of the Hebrew people out of Egypt, led by Moses
Diaspora
the scattering of the Jews outside of Canaan
Confucianism
philosophy that stresses treating others humanely, practicing traditional
rituals, and honoring one's ancestors
Daoism
philosophy that teaches that harmony is found by finding one's place in nature
Laozi
The "Old Master" who encouraged people to give up worldly desires in favor of nature; he founded Taoism (Daoism).
Dao De Jing
Daoist teachings written by Laozi
Analects
Book written by Confucius about how to improve society and base leadership on merit.
Kongfuzi
Confucius' real name