44 terms

AQA GCSE Geography B - Coasts

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Estuary
Tidal part of a river
Multi use
an area with a range of SEE actitvites
Physical features
Features which attract tourits
Swash
Movement of water up a beach
Backwash
Movement of water down a beach
Constructive Wave
Build up beach, low crest, swash has more energy
Destructive Wave
Sand pulled into sea by stronger backwash, high crest
Swash aligned beach
When waves approach the coast parallel to the coast line
Drift aligned beach
When waves approach beach at an angle
Erosion
Wearing away of rocks by the action of the sea
Hydraulic action (erosion)
Force of waves breaking against cliff causing it to break from the air compressed in cracks
Abrasion (erosion)
Storm conditions cause waves to pick up sand and pebbles. As the waves break, this material is hurled at the cliff
Attrition (erosion)
Sand and pebbles are constantly colliding with each other as they are moved by the waves on the beach
Weathering
The break down of rocks by the action of weather, plants, animals or chemicals
Corrosion solution (weathering)
Sea water dissolves chalk and limestone. Salt crystals in cracks forces the rocks apart.
Wetting and drying (weathering)
Soft rocks e.g clay expand when wet and contract when dry. This weakens the rocks.
Subaerial Processes
Processes that attack the face and top of the cliff
Landform
A feature formed by erosion or deposition.
Headland
Where the land is made of harder rock e.g chalk that extends to the sea
Bay
Where land made of softer rock is eroded leaving a sheltered beach
Prevailing wind
The dominant wind direction
Longshore drift
Process where sediment is pulled back into the sea by the backwash and, due to the prevailing wind being at an angle, causes the swash to go in a diagonal direction and deposit the sediment further up the beach
Spit
Where longshore drift causes sediment to be deposited where the coastline suddenly changes direction
Bar
Where LSD creates a sand barrier in front of a lagoon
Tombolo
A ridge of sand that connects an island to the mainland or to another island.
Slipping Plain
Line of weakness, often where previous landslide has occured
Beach profile
The shape of the beach from the sea to the land e.g steep
Hard Engineering
Man-made structures using hard materials to prevent flooding or LSD
Soft Engineering
Natural methods to absorb wave energy
Beach Replenishment
More sand is added to a beach using ships which use sand off the sea bed and spray it onto the beach
Beach Recycling
Sand moved by LSD is moved back up the beach using dumper trucks
Beach Reprofiling
Bulldozers push sand that has been dragged into the sea by the backwash up the beach to create a gentle beach profile
Groynes
Wooden or stone fences built at right angles to the coast; trap material transported by longshore drift to create wider beaches
Revetments
Wooden barriers parallel to the cliffs that slow down erosion by making the waves break early.
Rock Armour
Large boulders piled at foot of cliffs to absorb energy of waves
Breakwater
A barrier of boulders built in lines in the water parallel to a coast to break the force of the waves.
Gabions
Wire mesh boxes that contain rocks. They are placed at the base of unstable slopes to provide support. Water can drain through the spaces between the rocks preventing slippage.
Managed retreat
Soft engineering method allowing controlled flooding of low lying coastal areas or cliff collapse in areas where the value of the land is low
Mediterranean Blue Plan
Managing whole coastal area 2006, UN stop destrucion of coast, treat waste water, save habatats, clean ip by 2020, 10% of all coastal area protected, 20 countries, tourist guidelines
Lyme Regis
Dorset, cost £ 17 mil, hold the line, sea wall only last 30 years, rock armour, secure
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Mediterranean Blue Plan
Managing whole coastal area 2006, UN stop destrucion of coast, treat waste water, save habatats, clean ip by 2020, 10% of all coastal area protected, 20 countries, tourist guidelines
Lyme Regis
Dorset, cost £ 17 mil, hold the line, sea wall only last 30 years, rock armour, secure
...
...
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