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US History Final Exam Study Guide - Tessa Kaufmann
Terms in this set (100)
As the 1920s progressed, farm incomes
Describe the changing attitudes of the middle class living in developing suburbs
they became more conservative and more politically active
African Americans in the 1920s faced discrimination, especially in
the South, where the Jim Crow laws were in effect
The demand for automobiles in the 1920s had what other effect?
stimulated the growth in other industries
Buying stock on margin remained profitable as long as
stock prices rose
During the 1920s, American farmers as a group
In the 1920s, how did most national leaders hope to go about avoiding war?
by avoiding close interactions with other nations
What was the largest cultural split in 1920s America?
between urban Americans and rural Americans
Why was formal education more important for urban Americans than rural Americans?
most higher-paying jobs in the cities required formal educations
Most Americans who opposed the Ku Klux Klan embraced what notion?
that America was a "melting pot"
How was Henry Ford able to reduce the sale price of the Model T?
Ford put cars on assembly lines and reduced the time it took to make a car
an American hybrid of African American and European music forms
The literature of the Harlem Renaissance
works about the joys and pains of being black in America
Which group experienced an early depression in the 1920s?
Which of these factors helped hide economic problems in the 1920s?
the expansion of easy credit
What event occurred on Black Tuesday?
stock market crash
Why did so many banks collapse at the beginning of the Great Depression?
too many depositors tried withdrawing money all at the same time/
investors lost confidence
What factors contributed to the plight of rural farmers?
falling prices for crops and livestock
President Hoover responded cautiously to the Great Depression because he
thought that the business cycle would correct itself
Some Americans blamed the Great Depression on
How did the uneven distribution of the nation's wealth lead to the depression?
Wealthy people grew wealthier and had money to spend on consumer products, but this spending was not enough to keep the economy booming.
Roosevelt created the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) to
regulate the stock market
What were the goals of the New Deal?
provide relief, recovery, and reform
The Agricultural Adjustment Act helped farmers because it...
sought to end overproduction and raise crop prices
What did President Roosevelt introduce to help retirees?
Social Security Act
Who was the first female Cabinet member?
The American Liberty League (ALL) formed to...
Oppose FDR's New Deal
One way that Americans escaped their concerns during the 1930s was to...
go to movie theaters
What was a significant flaw of the Social Security Act?
it didn't apply to domestics or farmworkers at first
How did the Great Depression eventually change Germany politically?
Germans eventually believed that Hitler would solve their economic problems.
Italy and Japan were dissatisfied with the peace settlements provided in the Treaty of Versailles because both countries expected more...
territory in exchange for their sacrifices during WWII
The League of Nations did not prevent German and Italian aggression against other nations because it
had no standing army and no real power
Why did the United States initially follow a policy of appeasement toward Germany?
The United States wanted to focus on its own economic problems
How did support for the Allies change following Roosevelt's reelection in
support increased; Congress approved Lend-Lease Act
The Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor because they wanted to
destroy ships and planes that could stop their expansion
How did Adolf Hitler explain the problems facing Germany in his book Mein Kampf?
He blamed the problems on the Jewish people and the great threat they caused Germany.
The Allies adopted a "Europe First" strategy because...
Only Germany was considered a long-term threat
At the 1942 Wannsee Conference, Reinhard Heydrich...
outlined a plan to exterminate about 11,000,000 Jews
Following the battle of Stalingrad, Hitler's plans...
of dominating Europe were ended
Allied bombing of Germany in 1942 changed the war because it
helped pave the way for an all-out offense
What was a result of the Battle of Midway?
Japan never again threatened Pacific domination
How did wartime pressures create a break from the past?
many women took jobs that fell outside the traditional realm of women's work
Executive Order 9066 affected civil liberties in the United States because it...
designated war zones from which anyone could be removed
FDR created the Office of Price Administration (OPA), which
was able to control wages and set minimum prices
What was one effect of the D-Day invasion?
The allies took an important step toward reaching Berlin
One of the effects of the Battle of the Bulge was that
Germany used its reserves and demoralized its troops in the battle
As American forces approached Japan, Japanese forces
fought to the end, preferring to kill themselves than to surrender
Who made the decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan?
Harry S. Truman
The largest Nazi death camp was located at
Which two nations emerged as the strongest following World War II?
the Soviet Union and the US
The United Nations (U.N.) was organized to
encourage the cooperation between the Great Powers
In the years closely following World War II, many African Americans
renewed their efforts to work for civil rights
Who first spoke of the "iron curtain"
One goal of the Marshall Plan was to
make European countries strong enough to start buying American goods.
In order to try to gain control over West Berlin, the Soviet Union...
set up a total blockade cutting off that section of the city.
NATO and the Warsaw Pact were examples of
military alliances made for "collective security"
In 1950, what event began the conflict on the Korean peninsula?
The North Korean army invaded south of the 38th parallel.
What happened on September 2, 1949 that caused a sudden change in U.S.-Soviet relations?
The Soviet Union set off an atomic bomb
How was Khrushchev different from Stalin?
He was less cruel and suspicious
The CIA participated in the Cold War by...
carrying out secret operations in other countries
What was one place on the globe where the Cold War was "hot" and U.S. soldiers fought and died?
In 1954, after he had worked on developing the atomic bomb, J. Robert Oppenheimer was investigated and denied future access to classified information because
he had friends and family who belonged to the communist party
What led to Senator McCarthy's downfall?
the broadcast of the McCarthy hearing on television
After World War II, worker productivity improved largely because of
numerous technological advances
The Marshall Plan generated economic growth by
stimulating foreign demand for American goods
The National Defense Education Act allocated federal funds to train...
During the postwar period, immigrant groups in America
lacked political power because of language barriers and the threat of deportation.
After the war, the United States economy
Between 1940 and 1960, more than 40 million Americans
migrated to the suburbs
The rise of the car culture led to the
spread of fast food restaurants and drive in movies
What made the scale of suburban growth possible?
The television changed what?
the way politicians ran for office
Television programs in the 1950s often
idealized families centered around the father as breadwinner and the mother as homemaker.
became a symbol of youth culture
Many social critics in the 1950s criticized an American emphasis on
After World War II, many American cities began to decline because of the
flight of the middle class white families
Which of the following contributed to rural poverty?
What was the significance of Hernandez v. Texas?
It extended Fourteenth Amendment protections to Mexican Americans
In return for the desegregation of interstate transportation,
the Kennedy administration agreed not to stop the arrest of Mississippi activists.
What were Jim Crow laws?
They were laws that enforced the strict separation of the races
The members of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) believed
that direct, nonviolent methods could gain civil rights for African Americans.
In a ruling known as Brown II, the Supreme Court
ordered the immediate implementation of Brown v. Board of Education.
In response to riots over desegregation the University of Mississippi, President Kennedy declared that
Americans were free to disagree with the law but not to disobey it.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 forbids discrimination in employment on the basis of
RACE, sex, color, national origin, and religion
What happened in hundreds of cities immediately after the assassination of Martin Luther King?
Riots broke out
Who signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964?
Why did Martin Luther King target Birmingham, Alabama for a civil rights campaign?
Because it was considered the most segregated city in the South
How did T. Eugene Connor react to civil rights marchers in Birmingham, Alabama?
He ordered the use of police dogs and fire hoses against the marchers
As a result of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty,
nearly forty countries ended above ground testing
What effect did the Cold War have on the American space program?
competition with Soviet Union spurred American space missions
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution allowed President Johnson to
take all necessary measures to defend against armed attacks on U.S. forces.
What did the Pentagon Papers reveal?
American leaders misled the Congress and American people about the war.
Why was the Tet Offensive considered a turning point in the Vietnam ?
The Vietcong and North Vietnamese
demonstrated that they could still fight.
What issues led Native Americans to organize activist groups?
Native Americans suffered high rates of poverty and unemployment
The Cuyahoga River in Cleveland, Ohio, helped promote the environmental movement because
Pollutants on its surface caught fire and attracted media attention
President Carter's response to the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 was to
by barring U.S. athletes from participating in the 1980 Olympic games in Moscow.
What did Egypt agree to do in order to achieve peace with Israel?
They recognized Israel as an independent nation.
The proposed "Star Wars" program involved
Land and space based lasers would destroy andy missiles aimed at the U.S. before they reach their targets
Gorbachev pursued glasnost and perestroika reforms in part because
the war in Afghanistan had drained the nation's resources
What symbolized the end of communism in Europe?
Destruction of the Berlin Wall
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