drugs: estrogen, cotricosteroids, anabolic steroids, growth hormone, insulin, chlorpromazine (schizophrenia), isoniazid (TB), phenacemide (antiepileptic), salicylates, sulfonamides, tolbutamide
-impaired kidney function due to acute/chronic kidney disease, damage, or failure.
-Decreased blood flow to the kidney could be another cause for an increased concentration of urea in the blood.
-congestive heart failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, hypovolema, heart attack, shock, conditions that cause obstruction of urine flow, dehydration, stress, lack of protein in diet
acute tubular necrosis, dehydration, diabetic nephropathy, eclampsia, glomerulonephritis, kidney failure, muscular dystrophy, preeclampsia, pyelonephritis, reduced kidney flow, rhabdomyolysis, or a urinary tract obstruction. hyperaldosteronism, severe burns, cystic fibrosis, alcoholism, Cushing's syndrome, dehydration, malnutrition, vomiting, diarrhea and certain kidney diseases, such as Bartter's syndrome, diuretics cause low potassium levels hyperventilation, aspirin or alcohol overdose, diarrhea, dehydration, severe malnutrition, severe burns, shock, liver or kidney disease, a massive heart attack, hyperthyroidism, uncontrolled diabetes screen for:
Parathyroid gland function • Kidney function • Kidney stones • Pancreatitis • Bone disease •
Find underlying cause of:
-Muscle spasms, depression, confusion, tingling around the mouth and fingers, and muscle cramping and twitching (can be caused by low calcium level in blood)
-abnormal electrocardiographic (ECG) result.
-Nausea, vomiting, bone pain, lack of appetite, weakness, abdominal pain, and constipation and increased urination (can be caused by a high calcium level in blood)