45 terms

BIOLOGY CHAPTER13

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Terms in this set (...)

ECOLOGY
The study of the interactions among living things and their surroundings.
COMMUNITY
A group of different species that live together in one area.
OR
Different populations that live together in a defined area.
ECOSYSTEM
This includes all the organisms as well as the climate, soil, water, rock and other nonliving things in a given area.
BIOME
A major regional or global community of organisms.
OR
A group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominate communities.
ecology in greek means what?
HOUSE
ECOLOGY
Scientific study of the interactions among and between organisms.
COMMUNITY
Different populations that live together in a defined area.
A tundra, tropical rain forest, savanna, dessert.. are examples of what level of organization?
Biome
BIOSPHERE
This contains the combined portions of the plant in which all of life exists, including land, water and air or atmosphere. It extends 8km above Earth's surface and to 11 km below the ocean's floor.
SPECIES
A group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring.
POPULATION
A group of the same species that lives in one area.
What are three research methods that ecologists use to study the environment?
Observation
Experimentation
Modeling
What are the 5 levels of organization?
( great picture on 373)
organism/species
population
community
ecosystem
biome
BIOTIC
LIVING THINGS SUCH AS PLANTS, ANIMALS, BACTERIA AND FUNGI.
ABIOTIC
nonliving things such as moist, soil, wind and sunlight
BIODIVERSITY
The assortment or variety of living things (bio) in an ecosystem.
KEYSTONE SPECIES
A species that has an unusually large effect on its ecosystem.
Give an example of a keystone species.
BEAVER
(SEE PAGE 380)
PRODUCER
They get their energy from nonliving sources
OR
an organism that makes its own food
OR
an autotroph
CONSUMER
Organisms that get treir energy by eating living or once living resources such as plants and animals.
OR
a heterotroph
AUTOTROPH
organisms that capture energy from sunlight or chemicals to produce food ( plants and algae are examples)
HETEROTROPH
organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy
CHEMOSYNTHESIS
a process by which organisms such as bacteria use chemicals to make food.
OR
the process by which an organism forms carbohydrates using chemicals, rather than light , as an energy source.
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
The process by which producers capture energy.
OR/AND
Autotrophs use light energy from the sun and convert it into chemical energy( food primarily sugar) by converting carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and sugar
REMEMBER
CO2 + H2O yields O2 and sugars
(reactants) (products)
These products are needed for cellular respiration and thus the food chain....)
WHY DO YOU THINK THAT BACTERIA
THAT LIVE IN REMOTE PLACES SUCH AS DEEP IN THE OCEAN FLOOR NEAR VOLCANIC VENTS USE CHEMOSYNTHESIS FOR ENERGY SOURCE?
Since they do not have access to sunlight, they have adapted to use chemicals to form carbohydrates to make its energy.
Where do almost all producers obtain their energy from?
sunlight
FOOD CHAIN
Model that show the flow of energy in an ecosystem
OR
a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten.
OR
a sequence that links species by their feeding relationship
NOTE: This describes the connection between 1 producer and a chain of consumers
FOOD WEB
when all food chains in an ecosystem are linked.
(more complex- a network of complex interactions amoung various organisms in an ecosystem)
CARNIVORE
Consumers that eat animals to get their energy
(snakes, owls, hawks)
DETRITIVORE
consumers that feed on the remains of plants and animals and other dead matter ( called detritus)
-(mites earthworms, snails, crabs, millipede)
SPECIALIST
A consumer that eats primarily one specific organism
(Snail Kite is specialist that eats apple snails. Was endangered with land development in Florida)
HERBIVORE
Consumers that only get their energy from plants
(cows, caterpillars, deers, dessert cottontails)
OMNIVORE
consumers that eat both plants and animals to get their energy
(humans, bears, crows, kangaroo rats)
DECOMPOSER
consumers that break down organic matter
(bacteria and fungi)
GENERALIST
Consumers that have a varying diet
TROPHIC LEVEL
each step in a food chain or food web
producer = first trophic level
consumers= 2nd, 3rd, 4th or higher
OR
levels of nourishment in a food chain.

EXAMPLE: producer-herbivore-carnivore has 3 trophic levels
ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS
A diagram that shows th relative amount of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web
Name the 3 types for ecological pyramids.
Biomass, energy and numbers
ENERGY PYRAMID
a diagram that shows the distribution of energy in a food chain. Energy flows up from producer to consumer. Between each tier energy is lost as heat. Sometimes only 10% of energy is transferred to the next trophic level.
BIOMASS PYRAMID
A diagram that shows mass of organisms at each trophic level.
OR
this represents the amount of potential food available for each trophic level in an ecosystem. Usually expressed in terms of grams or organic matter per unit area.
BIOMASS
The total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level.
NUMBERS PYRAMID
A diagram that shows the actual number of organisms that is present in each trophic level.
SCAVENGER
A consumer that eats the carcasses of dead animals but does not typically kill them itself
(vulture)
What does photosynthesis and chemosynthesis have in common?
Autotrophs or producers use these processes to make carbohydrates.
List 6 heterotrophs
herbivore
carnivore
omnivore
scavenger
detritivore
decomposer