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4 functions of Personality Theories
To provide a way of organizing what we know about ourselves and others; To explain differences between individuals, To explore how people conduct their lives; To determine ways to help improve lives.
Try to develop systematic theories about human behavior and to test their theories in a scientific way.
The Personality Theory that emphasizes the importance of motive hidden deep in the unconsciousness.
He concluded that some of the most powerful influences of human personality were things we are not conscious of
Believed that unconscious feeling and experiences of childhood impact adult personality and behavior
Freud's Death Drive
The desire for the final end shows up in human personality as destructiveness and aggression
the storehouse of instincts, urges, and memories of the entire human species through history
inherited universal ideas that reflect the common experiences of humanity and which are in every person
identified archetypes by studying dreams, visions, paintings, poetry, folk stories, myths, religions
believed that the driving force in people's lives is a desire to overcome their feelings of inferiority
developed by people who continually try to cover up and avoid feeling of inadequacy
believed that the way parents treat their children has a great influence on the styles of life they choose.
believed personality is to a considerable extent a reflection of factors such as social class, minority status, education, vocation, religious and philosophical background.
believe that the only proper subject of matter of psychology is objectively observable behavior
believed that personlaity is not just acquired through direct reinforcement but also is a result of observational learning
Learning a new behavior by watching another person and the consequences of their behavior
rebelled against the pessimistic view of human nature proposed by Freudians and the mechanistic views of the Behaviorists
stresses our relative freedom from instinctual pressures and our ability to create and live by personal standards
Needed for self-actualization
openess to a wide range of experiences; an awareness of and respect for personal unquenesses
involves accepting the responsibilities of freedom and commitment and a desire to become more and more authentic
perceive reality accurately, accept themselves, others, and their environment readily
accept themselves as they are instead of denying shortcoming or trying to rationalize or change things about themselves that they don't like
are more problem-centered than self-centered; are more likely to make decisions based on ethical principles than on calculations or personal costs/benefits
identify with others; have a strong sense of humor; are spontaneous; are autonomous; value privacy; seek solitude; focus on living relationships few a few close people; appreciate simple things
believed that self-actualizing people must satisfy basic needs for food, shelter, safety, love, belonging, self-esteem
was primarily concerned with the roadblocks and detours on the path to self-actualization
believed that many personal conflicts arise because what we value in ourselves conflicts with what we learn from others
conditions of worth
lead us to see ourselves as good or bad and come from the mixed messages of others
Ways of coping with condtions of worth
rejecting or denying parts of the organism that do not fit in the self-concept
Unconditional Positive Regard
when other convey they feeling that they value you for what you are, in your entirety
Fully Functioning Person
A person in which the organism and the self are one; is free to develop all of his potentialities
two basic assuptions of trait theory
1. every trait applies to all people; 2. the descriptions of the traits can be quantified and studied.
Trait theorist that emphasized the positive, rational, and conscious reasons why we act
held that traits are responsible for the relative consistency of every individual's behavior
identified two basic dimension of personality: 1. the degree to which people have control over their feelings; 2. extrovert vs. introvert
Interpersonality Theories of Personality
see personality as a function of a person's social environment
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