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chap 15

how do endocrine glands differ from exocrine glands

how do endocrin glands endocrine glands secrete tiny amounts of hormones directly into the bloodstream (ductless glands) and exocrine glands secret their products onto epithelial surfaces through tiny tubes called ducts(exo means "out" or "external")

in what ways are the functions and characteristics of the endocrine system similar to those of the nervous system

they both help maintain HOMEOSTASIS (balance)

in what ways are the functions of the endocrine system different then the nervous system

the endocrin system messengers,hormones, are produced by edocrine gland cells, or modified neurons.the nervous system messengers,called neurotransmitters,are produced only by neurons.they travel very short distances across synaptic spaces to produce their effect, the target of neurotransmitters are generally only muscle cells,glands,and other neurons.the endocrine system reacts slowly to changes but can sustain its responses for long periods.the nervous system reacts more quickly to changes but cannot sustain prolonged responses


chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues

hormone target

a cell that has receptors for a particular hormone

negative feedback system

Reverses a change in a controlled condition


a neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion.

pituitary gland

The center of control of the endocrine system that secretes a large number of hormones

anterior pituitary

what is the anterior lobe of the pituitary body

posterior pituitary

what is the lobe of pituitary gland that secretes oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone

adrenal cortex

what is the cortex of the adrenal gland

negative feedbask system

most hormones are controlled by what


Anterior pituitary controlled by releasing and inhibiting factors from-------

antidiuretic hormone / oxytocin

posterior potuitary stores ------- ---------- and ----which alson controls release from storage


the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (rostral) is the


the posterior lobe of the pituitary body (caudal) is the


the adenohypophysisis has what kind of appearance

7 hormones

the adenohypophysisis produces how many hormones

nervous system

neurohypophysus develops were

growth hormone(GH) / prolaction / thyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH) / adrenocorticotropic(ACTH) / follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) / luteininzing hormone(LH) / melanocyte-stimulating hormone(MSH)

what hormones does the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) produce...WE HAVE TO KNOW THESE)


what is the Growth-stimulating hormone produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland


what does prolactin help trigger and maintain

as long as there is continues stimulation of the teat or nipple

how long is prolactin produced

thyrotropic hormone

THS, stimulates thryroid, affects all aspects of human function

cortex (outer portion) of the adrennal gland

ACTH,stimulates growth and development of the ---------- ------- ----- and it hormine release

stimulates growth and devellopment of follicles

what is FSH job


what is the science name of the production of mature egg cell


what is The production of sperm called


(FSH) stimulates ---------- (sperm production) in the seminiferous tubes in the testes in the male


increase in (LH) causes what in most female species

interstitial cell stimulating hormone(ICSH)

what is (LH) sometimes called


LH,stimulates the interstital cells in the testes, to develop and produce ---------- in the male

color changes

MSH,is associated with --------- --------- in the pigment cells (melanocytes) of reptiles, fish,and amphibians.


what does the posterior pituitary not produce? but it does store it

antiduretic hormone(ADH) oxytocin

posterior pituitary stores the ------- and-------- which is transported down nerve fibers form the hypothalamus

distral convoluted tubules / collecting ducts

ADH, helps prenvent diuresis by reaborbing water from the ---- -------- and ----- ------- concentrating urine

diabetes insipidus

lack of ADH will cause ---------- ---------- causing animals gto become PU/PD

uterus / mamary glands

oxytocin has two targets what are they


what is the smooth muscle forming the wall of the uterus


what is the act of giving birth called

myometrium / parturition

oxytocin causes contraction of the ---------- at breeding and ------- to move sperm up to oviducts and to expel fetus

milk let down

what action is caused by oxytocin in the mamary glands


what two lobs are located on either side of the larynx


what hormone secreted by the thyroid to prevent too much calcium from absorbing into the bones


what endocrin gland stores large amounts of hormone precusors for future use


what is greater than normal amount of glucose in the blood.

keeps blood sugar from dropping too low

what does thyroid hormone do

encoraging excessive blood to be deposited in the bones

what does calcitonin do

draws calcium out of the bones

what does parathroid glands do


PTH-parathryoid hormone or parathormine prevents --------- by drawing calcium out of the bone


how many glands does the adrenal gland have

outer adrenal cortex and the inner adrenal medulla

what are the adrenal glands called

glucocorticoid / mineralocorticoid / sex hormones

the outer adrenal cortex produces what

ACTH / anterior pituitary

adrenal cortex develps from glandular tissue and is directed by ----- and---------


what is Increase blood glucose


what is the what hormone that is one of the steroids of the adrenal cortex that influences the metabolism of sodium and potassium


--------- is the principal mineralocorticoid.


what effects levels of sodium,potassium,and hydrogen in the body.


what is the target organ with mineralocorticoids

sodium / potassium

with mineralocorticoids the kidney encouages ----- retentin in exchange for --------- and hydrogen ions

sex hormones

what produces androgens (male hormone) estrogens (female hormone)

sympathetic nervous system

what nervous system is the adrenal medulla control by


exocrine glandular tissue which sectetes digestive enzymes makes up majoirty of the mass


what moves glucose from bloodstream into cells-hypoglycemic effect-lower blood glucose


what raises blood glucose


what are the reproductive glands-male, testes; female, ovaries


after ovulation takes places, corpus lluteum produces progestins, principally progesterone were,


the kidney produces --------- which stimulates red bone marrow to increase production of RBC


what is a lack of oxygen


the kidney is stimulated by -----------to produce erythropoietin.


What hormone regulates digestion? which is produced in the stomach

secretin / cholecystokinin

the small intestine produces 2 hormones what are they


what stimulates contraction of the gallbladder which releases bile, stimulates the pancreas to secrete enzymes to help break down fat


A hormone secreted by the small intestine (duodenum) in response to low pH (e.g., from stomach acid). It promotes the release of bicarbonate from the pancreas to act as a buffer.

gall bladder

secretin and cholecystokinin both inhibit gastric gland secretions and stilulate the --------- ------- to contract


what is any hormone that stimulates gonadal function

humans and horses

the placenta produces larget amounts of chorionic what species

T lymphocytes

what form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances


what gland is only present in young animals-and mearly disappears with age (after puberty)


what gland produces thymosin and thymopoitin in tissues ,to be transformed into T lymphocytes


what is produced in the Pineal Gland, may have a role on night and day cycles.

pineal gland

what gland produces melationin


what does PGE stand for


prostaglandins is involved in what


what chemicals released from cells that cause smooth muscle contraction and pain, help the body transmit pain messages to the brain

Cushings syndrome

A condition that results from the hypersecretion of glutocorticoids from the adrenal cortex.


what causes excess adrenal cortex hormones, Cushings Disease, dermatitis, hair loss, adrenal tumor,polyuria, polydipsia (PU/PD), muscular weakness, reproductive problems


whats another name for addison's desease / caused by lack of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid levels

sodium / potassium

hypoadrenocorticism is mineralocorticoid(aldosterone) controls electrolyte bance,particularty ----------- and ---------

potassium / sodium

addisonian dogs with mineralocorticoid defiency usually have high ------ and low-----


hormone that is one of the steroids of the adrenal cortex that influences the metabolism of sodium and potassium


overactivity of the thyroid gland is called

dogs / cats

hyperthyroidism is very rare in ---, but common in ----

diarrhea-restlessness-weightloss despite very good appetite - tachycardia

what are some clinical signs of feline hyperthyroidism


underactivity of the thyroid gland is known as

cats / dogs

hypothyroidism is very rare in --- but common in ---

weight gain - lethargy - oily skin - alopecia - thickened skin - cold intolerance

what are some clinical signs of hypothyroidism

diabetis mellitus

what is chronic illness caused by lack of insulin in body or inhabilty to use insulin effectivly


with diabeted mellitus if an animal is not eating, insulin should ---- be administered so that hypoglucemia is not induced


what is a condition in which there is too much insulin in the body, causing the blood sugar level to be low

young puppies / kittens / small animals

hypoglycemia is common in -- --- , ------ , and especially -- ----

increased blood pressure

which is not a function of insulin? increased glucose transport into muscle/ lipogenesis/ fatty acid synthesis/ increased blood pressure

gaining weight

which condition would be typical of hypothyroidism? decresed water consumption/ oily hair coat/ very active/weight gain


in dairy cattle the teats and udder are gently washed before milking to stimulate the release of -----------,which causes milk let-down


GnRH will stimulate the release of


ACTH will stimulate the release of

pituitary gland

the neurohypophysis is an anatomic section of the


insulin stimulates all of the following except? potein synthesis/ fatty acid synthesis/ glycogen synthesis/ gluconeogenesis


what hormone is produced by the kidney

pineal gland

the endocine structure responsible for secreting melationin is


the hormone that lowers the level of glucose in the blood by aiding the passage of glucose into cells is


the hormone that works on a positive feedback system to cause labor contractions is


the adrenal glands produce


the pancreas produces


what gland regulates most of the endocrine system

thyroxine and calcitonin

what hormones are produced byh the thyroid gland


what hormone stimulates milk let down

adjacent to the trachea

where is the thyroid gland located

transported via ducts

exocrine glands are glands whose secretory products are


what substance is required for production of thyroid hormones


is loss of weight with a normal increased appetite a sign of hyperthyroidism


desreased metabolic rate a sign of hypertyroidisom


when one hormone increases the activity of another hormone, the effect is termed

adrenocorticotropic hormone

abbreviation ACTH stands for

help control water loss from the kidney

the most important function of ADH is to

pancreatic juice

what substance is not classified as an endocrine hormone


what type of hormine transmission uses interstitial fluid to diffuse the hormine through the body


what hormine increases the permeability of renal rubular cells to water


what does alpha cells produce


what does beta cells produce

somatostatin / insulin

delta cells produce ------------ which inhibits the secrestion if -------,glucagon, and GH, as well as decreasing activity of GI tract.

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