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how do endocrine glands differ from exocrine glands
how do endocrin glands endocrine glands secrete tiny amounts of hormones directly into the bloodstream (ductless glands) and exocrine glands secret their products onto epithelial surfaces through tiny tubes called ducts(exo means "out" or "external")
in what ways are the functions and characteristics of the endocrine system similar to those of the nervous system
they both help maintain HOMEOSTASIS (balance)
in what ways are the functions of the endocrine system different then the nervous system
the endocrin system messengers,hormones, are produced by edocrine gland cells, or modified neurons.the nervous system messengers,called neurotransmitters,are produced only by neurons.they travel very short distances across synaptic spaces to produce their effect, the target of neurotransmitters are generally only muscle cells,glands,and other neurons.the endocrine system reacts slowly to changes but can sustain its responses for long periods.the nervous system reacts more quickly to changes but cannot sustain prolonged responses
chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues
a neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion.
The center of control of the endocrine system that secretes a large number of hormones
what is the lobe of pituitary gland that secretes oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone
antidiuretic hormone / oxytocin
posterior potuitary stores ------- ---------- and ----which alson controls release from storage
growth hormone(GH) / prolaction / thyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH) / adrenocorticotropic(ACTH) / follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) / luteininzing hormone(LH) / melanocyte-stimulating hormone(MSH)
what hormones does the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) produce...WE HAVE TO KNOW THESE)
what is the Growth-stimulating hormone produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
cortex (outer portion) of the adrennal gland
ACTH,stimulates growth and development of the ---------- ------- ----- and it hormine release
(FSH) stimulates ---------- (sperm production) in the seminiferous tubes in the testes in the male
LH,stimulates the interstital cells in the testes, to develop and produce ---------- in the male
MSH,is associated with --------- --------- in the pigment cells (melanocytes) of reptiles, fish,and amphibians.
antiduretic hormone(ADH) oxytocin
posterior pituitary stores the ------- and-------- which is transported down nerve fibers form the hypothalamus
distral convoluted tubules / collecting ducts
ADH, helps prenvent diuresis by reaborbing water from the ---- -------- and ----- ------- concentrating urine
myometrium / parturition
oxytocin causes contraction of the ---------- at breeding and ------- to move sperm up to oviducts and to expel fetus
what hormone secreted by the thyroid to prevent too much calcium from absorbing into the bones
PTH-parathryoid hormone or parathormine prevents --------- by drawing calcium out of the bone
ACTH / anterior pituitary
adrenal cortex develps from glandular tissue and is directed by ----- and---------
what is the what hormone that is one of the steroids of the adrenal cortex that influences the metabolism of sodium and potassium
sodium / potassium
with mineralocorticoids the kidney encouages ----- retentin in exchange for --------- and hydrogen ions
after ovulation takes places, corpus lluteum produces progestins, principally progesterone were,
the kidney produces --------- which stimulates red bone marrow to increase production of RBC
what stimulates contraction of the gallbladder which releases bile, stimulates the pancreas to secrete enzymes to help break down fat
A hormone secreted by the small intestine (duodenum) in response to low pH (e.g., from stomach acid). It promotes the release of bicarbonate from the pancreas to act as a buffer.
secretin and cholecystokinin both inhibit gastric gland secretions and stilulate the --------- ------- to contract
humans and horses
the placenta produces larget amounts of chorionic gonadotropin-esp.in what species
what form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances
what gland produces thymosin and thymopoitin in tissues ,to be transformed into T lymphocytes
what chemicals released from cells that cause smooth muscle contraction and pain, help the body transmit pain messages to the brain
A condition that results from the hypersecretion of glutocorticoids from the adrenal cortex.
what causes excess adrenal cortex hormones, Cushings Disease, dermatitis, hair loss, adrenal tumor,polyuria, polydipsia (PU/PD), muscular weakness, reproductive problems
whats another name for addison's desease / caused by lack of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid levels
sodium / potassium
hypoadrenocorticism is mineralocorticoid(aldosterone) controls electrolyte bance,particularty ----------- and ---------
potassium / sodium
addisonian dogs with mineralocorticoid defiency usually have high ------ and low-----
hormone that is one of the steroids of the adrenal cortex that influences the metabolism of sodium and potassium
diarrhea-restlessness-weightloss despite very good appetite - tachycardia
what are some clinical signs of feline hyperthyroidism
weight gain - lethargy - oily skin - alopecia - thickened skin - cold intolerance
what are some clinical signs of hypothyroidism
what is chronic illness caused by lack of insulin in body or inhabilty to use insulin effectivly
with diabeted mellitus if an animal is not eating, insulin should ---- be administered so that hypoglucemia is not induced
what is a condition in which there is too much insulin in the body, causing the blood sugar level to be low
young puppies / kittens / small animals
hypoglycemia is common in -- --- , ------ , and especially -- ----
increased blood pressure
which is not a function of insulin? increased glucose transport into muscle/ lipogenesis/ fatty acid synthesis/ increased blood pressure
which condition would be typical of hypothyroidism? decresed water consumption/ oily hair coat/ very active/weight gain
in dairy cattle the teats and udder are gently washed before milking to stimulate the release of -----------,which causes milk let-down
insulin stimulates all of the following except? potein synthesis/ fatty acid synthesis/ glycogen synthesis/ gluconeogenesis
the hormone that lowers the level of glucose in the blood by aiding the passage of glucose into cells is
what type of hormine transmission uses interstitial fluid to diffuse the hormine through the body
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