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131 terms

Endocrine Glands

chap 15
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how do endocrine glands differ from exocrine glands
how do endocrin glands endocrine glands secrete tiny amounts of hormones directly into the bloodstream (ductless glands) and exocrine glands secret their products onto epithelial surfaces through tiny tubes called ducts(exo means "out" or "external")
in what ways are the functions and characteristics of the endocrine system similar to those of the nervous system
they both help maintain HOMEOSTASIS (balance)
in what ways are the functions of the endocrine system different then the nervous system
the endocrin system messengers,hormones, are produced by edocrine gland cells, or modified neurons.the nervous system messengers,called neurotransmitters,are produced only by neurons.they travel very short distances across synaptic spaces to produce their effect, the target of neurotransmitters are generally only muscle cells,glands,and other neurons.the endocrine system reacts slowly to changes but can sustain its responses for long periods.the nervous system reacts more quickly to changes but cannot sustain prolonged responses
hormones
chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues
hormone target
a cell that has receptors for a particular hormone
negative feedback system
Reverses a change in a controlled condition
hypothalamus
a neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion.
pituitary gland
The center of control of the endocrine system that secretes a large number of hormones
anterior pituitary
what is the anterior lobe of the pituitary body
posterior pituitary
what is the lobe of pituitary gland that secretes oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone
adrenal cortex
what is the cortex of the adrenal gland
negative feedbask system
most hormones are controlled by what
hypothalamus
Anterior pituitary controlled by releasing and inhibiting factors from-------
antidiuretic hormone / oxytocin
posterior potuitary stores ------- ---------- and ----which alson controls release from storage
adenhypophysis
the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (rostral) is the
neurohypophysis
the posterior lobe of the pituitary body (caudal) is the
glandular
the adenohypophysisis has what kind of appearance
7 hormones
the adenohypophysisis produces how many hormones
nervous system
neurohypophysus develops were
growth hormone(GH) / prolaction / thyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH) / adrenocorticotropic(ACTH) / follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) / luteininzing hormone(LH) / melanocyte-stimulating hormone(MSH)
what hormones does the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) produce...WE HAVE TO KNOW THESE)
somatotropin
what is the Growth-stimulating hormone produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
lactation
what does prolactin help trigger and maintain
as long as there is continues stimulation of the teat or nipple
how long is prolactin produced
thyrotropic hormone
THS, stimulates thryroid, affects all aspects of human function
cortex (outer portion) of the adrennal gland
ACTH,stimulates growth and development of the ---------- ------- ----- and it hormine release
stimulates growth and devellopment of follicles
what is FSH job
oogenisis
what is the science name of the production of mature egg cell
Spermatogenisis
what is The production of sperm called
spermatogenesis
(FSH) stimulates ---------- (sperm production) in the seminiferous tubes in the testes in the male
ovulation
increase in (LH) causes what in most female species
interstitial cell stimulating hormone(ICSH)
what is (LH) sometimes called
testosterone
LH,stimulates the interstital cells in the testes, to develop and produce ---------- in the male
color changes
MSH,is associated with --------- --------- in the pigment cells (melanocytes) of reptiles, fish,and amphibians.
hormones
what does the posterior pituitary not produce? but it does store it
antiduretic hormone(ADH) oxytocin
posterior pituitary stores the ------- and-------- which is transported down nerve fibers form the hypothalamus
distral convoluted tubules / collecting ducts
ADH, helps prenvent diuresis by reaborbing water from the ---- -------- and ----- ------- concentrating urine
diabetes insipidus
lack of ADH will cause ---------- ---------- causing animals gto become PU/PD
uterus / mamary glands
oxytocin has two targets what are they
myometrium
what is the smooth muscle forming the wall of the uterus
parturition
what is the act of giving birth called
myometrium / parturition
oxytocin causes contraction of the ---------- at breeding and ------- to move sperm up to oviducts and to expel fetus
milk let down
what action is caused by oxytocin in the mamary glands
thyroid
what two lobs are located on either side of the larynx
calcitonin
what hormone secreted by the thyroid to prevent too much calcium from absorbing into the bones
Thryoid
what endocrin gland stores large amounts of hormone precusors for future use
hyperglucemia
what is greater than normal amount of glucose in the blood.
keeps blood sugar from dropping too low
what does thyroid hormone do
encoraging excessive blood to be deposited in the bones
what does calcitonin do
draws calcium out of the bones
what does parathroid glands do
hypocalcemia
PTH-parathryoid hormone or parathormine prevents --------- by drawing calcium out of the bone
two
how many glands does the adrenal gland have
outer adrenal cortex and the inner adrenal medulla
what are the adrenal glands called
glucocorticoid / mineralocorticoid / sex hormones
the outer adrenal cortex produces what
ACTH / anterior pituitary
adrenal cortex develps from glandular tissue and is directed by ----- and---------
glucocorticoids
what is Increase blood glucose
mineralocorticoid
what is the what hormone that is one of the steroids of the adrenal cortex that influences the metabolism of sodium and potassium
aldosterone
--------- is the principal mineralocorticoid.
Aldosterone
what effects levels of sodium,potassium,and hydrogen in the body.
kidney
what is the target organ with mineralocorticoids
sodium / potassium
with mineralocorticoids the kidney encouages ----- retentin in exchange for --------- and hydrogen ions
sex hormones
what produces androgens (male hormone) estrogens (female hormone)
sympathetic nervous system
what nervous system is the adrenal medulla control by
pancreas
exocrine glandular tissue which sectetes digestive enzymes makes up majoirty of the mass
insulin
what moves glucose from bloodstream into cells-hypoglycemic effect-lower blood glucose
glucagon
what raises blood glucose
gonads
what are the reproductive glands-male, testes; female, ovaries
ovary
after ovulation takes places, corpus lluteum produces progestins, principally progesterone were,
erthropoietin
the kidney produces --------- which stimulates red bone marrow to increase production of RBC
Hypoxia
what is a lack of oxygen
hypoxia
the kidney is stimulated by -----------to produce erythropoietin.
gastrin
What hormone regulates digestion? which is produced in the stomach
secretin / cholecystokinin
the small intestine produces 2 hormones what are they
cholecystokinin
what stimulates contraction of the gallbladder which releases bile, stimulates the pancreas to secrete enzymes to help break down fat
secretin
A hormone secreted by the small intestine (duodenum) in response to low pH (e.g., from stomach acid). It promotes the release of bicarbonate from the pancreas to act as a buffer.
gall bladder
secretin and cholecystokinin both inhibit gastric gland secretions and stilulate the --------- ------- to contract
gonadotropin
what is any hormone that stimulates gonadal function
humans and horses
the placenta produces larget amounts of chorionic gonadotropin-esp.in what species
T lymphocytes
what form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances
thymus
what gland is only present in young animals-and mearly disappears with age (after puberty)
Thymus
what gland produces thymosin and thymopoitin in tissues ,to be transformed into T lymphocytes
melationin
what is produced in the Pineal Gland, may have a role on night and day cycles.
pineal gland
what gland produces melationin
prostaglandins
what does PGE stand for
inflammation
prostaglandins is involved in what
Prostaglandins
what chemicals released from cells that cause smooth muscle contraction and pain, help the body transmit pain messages to the brain
Cushings syndrome
A condition that results from the hypersecretion of glutocorticoids from the adrenal cortex.
hypERadrenocorticism
what causes excess adrenal cortex hormones, Cushings Disease, dermatitis, hair loss, adrenal tumor,polyuria, polydipsia (PU/PD), muscular weakness, reproductive problems
hypOadrenocorticism
whats another name for addison's desease / caused by lack of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid levels
sodium / potassium
hypoadrenocorticism is mineralocorticoid(aldosterone) controls electrolyte bance,particularty ----------- and ---------
potassium / sodium
addisonian dogs with mineralocorticoid defiency usually have high ------ and low-----
mineralocorticoid
hormone that is one of the steroids of the adrenal cortex that influences the metabolism of sodium and potassium
hyPERthyroidism
overactivity of the thyroid gland is called
dogs / cats
hyperthyroidism is very rare in ---, but common in ----
diarrhea-restlessness-weightloss despite very good appetite - tachycardia
what are some clinical signs of feline hyperthyroidism
hyPOthyroidism
underactivity of the thyroid gland is known as
cats / dogs
hypothyroidism is very rare in --- but common in ---
weight gain - lethargy - oily skin - alopecia - thickened skin - cold intolerance
what are some clinical signs of hypothyroidism
diabetis mellitus
what is chronic illness caused by lack of insulin in body or inhabilty to use insulin effectivly
not
with diabeted mellitus if an animal is not eating, insulin should ---- be administered so that hypoglucemia is not induced
hyPOglucemia
what is a condition in which there is too much insulin in the body, causing the blood sugar level to be low
young puppies / kittens / small animals
hypoglycemia is common in -- --- , ------ , and especially -- ----
increased blood pressure
which is not a function of insulin? increased glucose transport into muscle/ lipogenesis/ fatty acid synthesis/ increased blood pressure
gaining weight
which condition would be typical of hypothyroidism? decresed water consumption/ oily hair coat/ very active/weight gain
oxytocin
in dairy cattle the teats and udder are gently washed before milking to stimulate the release of -----------,which causes milk let-down
FSH
GnRH will stimulate the release of
cortisol
ACTH will stimulate the release of
pituitary gland
the neurohypophysis is an anatomic section of the
gluconeogenesis
insulin stimulates all of the following except? potein synthesis/ fatty acid synthesis/ glycogen synthesis/ gluconeogenesis
Erythropoietin
what hormone is produced by the kidney
pineal gland
the endocine structure responsible for secreting melationin is
insulin
the hormone that lowers the level of glucose in the blood by aiding the passage of glucose into cells is
oxytocin
the hormone that works on a positive feedback system to cause labor contractions is
glucocorticoids
the adrenal glands produce
progesterone
the pancreas produces
pituitary
what gland regulates most of the endocrine system
thyroxine and calcitonin
what hormones are produced byh the thyroid gland
oxytocin
what hormone stimulates milk let down
adjacent to the trachea
where is the thyroid gland located
transported via ducts
exocrine glands are glands whose secretory products are
iodine
what substance is required for production of thyroid hormones
yes
is loss of weight with a normal increased appetite a sign of hyperthyroidism
no
desreased metabolic rate a sign of hypertyroidisom
potentiation
when one hormone increases the activity of another hormone, the effect is termed
adrenocorticotropic hormone
abbreviation ACTH stands for
help control water loss from the kidney
the most important function of ADH is to
pancreatic juice
what substance is not classified as an endocrine hormone
paracrine
what type of hormine transmission uses interstitial fluid to diffuse the hormine through the body
ADH
what hormine increases the permeability of renal rubular cells to water
glucagon
what does alpha cells produce
insulin
what does beta cells produce
somatostatin / insulin
delta cells produce ------------ which inhibits the secrestion if -------,glucagon, and GH, as well as decreasing activity of GI tract.