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60 terms

Soc 204 ch 1-3

Sociologists emphasize the notion that our thinking and motivation are largely determined by:

a. our individual personalities
b. our natural born instincts
c. our biologically inherited genetic structure
d. influences drawn from our life experiences
d. influences drawn from our life experiences
When sociologists group people into categories based on their age, gender, educational level, job and income, they are trying to determine their:

a. social location
b. social personality
c. social skills
d. social network
a. social location
Clarise is employed as an FBI profiler. She has been asked to identify the common personality characteristics among a list of 15 serial killers. Clarise would most likely contact a/an ______ to assist her in her efforts.

a. sociologist
b. psychologist
c. anthropologist
d. economist
b. psychologist
The notion that only the fittest members of society deserve to survive and that social programs to help the poor will ultimately weaken the social order is a doctrine known as:

a. social darwinism
b. positivism
c. social welfare
d. post-modernism
a. social darwinsim
Karl Marx suggested that the force which drives human history and is at the core of human progress is:

a. class conflict
b. religion
c. family
d. education
a. class conflict
Durkheim introduces the concept _____ to express the degree to which people feel part of a social group.

a. sociopath
b. social integration
c. conflict
d. social class
b. social integration
According to Max Weber, the Protestant ethic was a central factor in the birth of:

a. capitalism
b. democracy
c. the spirit of verstehen
d. entrepreneurial ethic
a. capitalism
Dr. Zahn spends virtually all his academic interest in analyzing various aspects of society and publishing his findings in sociological journals. In view of this, Dr. Zahn is considered to be a(an):

a. pure
b. applied
c. reform
d. practical
a. pure
Sociologists who analyze how behavior depends on the ways that people define themselves and others are most likely:

a. functionalists
b. conflict theorists
c. ethnomethodologists
d. symbolic interactionists
d. symbolic interactionists
According to Robert Merton, ______ are the intended beneficial consequences of people's actions.

a. latent functions
b. latent dysfunctions
c. manifest functions
d. manifest dysfunctions
c. manifest functions
Functionalists generally agree that the family, as it exits today:

a. is an obsolete institution
b. is dysfunctional
c. has lost many of its traditional functions
d. is almost entirely self sufficient
c. has lost many of its traditional functions
Karl Marx believed the key element in understanding human history is to understand:

a. the role of education in society
b. the importance of religion
c. family and its function
d. class conflict
d. class conflict
Mark views society as a system of interrelated parts, while John view society as composed of groups competing for scarce resources. Mark would be considered a _____ theorist and John would be seen as a _____ theorist

a. functionalist; symbolic interactionist
b. conflict; functionalist
c. functionalist; conflict
d. symbolic interactionist; functionalist
d. functionalist; conflict
Sociologist Lewis Coser pointed out that conflict is most likely to occur among people who are:

a. indifferent social classes
b. have racial and ethnic differences
c. in close relationships
d. less educated
c. in close relationships
Conflict theorists would contend that changes in ____ explain the high divorce rates in the U.S.

a. the attitudes about commitment
b. the functions of the family
c. the male-female power relationship
d. our culture's beliefs about marriage
c. the male-female power relationship
The major difference between the three sociological perspectives is:

a. their degree of conservative ideology
b. the personality profile of those who embrace each of the perspectives
c. the level of analysis of each perspective
d. the impact each ideology has the common person
c. the level of analysis of each perspective
Sergio is interested in how changes in society are related to homelessness. He is examining how the movement of factory jobs from the U.S. to overseas locations has contributed to the increase in the number of homelelss. Sergio is conducting ____ analysis.

a. micro level
b. transactional
c. meso level
d. macro level
d. macro level
In studying problems of the homeless, _____ would focus on the face-to-face micro level interactions among the homeless.

a. symbolic interactionists
b functionalists
c. conflict theorists
d. structuralists
a. symbolic interactionists
Investing to make profits within a rational system is called:

a. socialism
b. globalization
c. investment
d. capitalism
d. capitalism
the breaking down of national boundaries because of advances in communication, trade, and travel is referred to as:

a. globalization
b. neo-colonialism
c. multiculteralism
d. colonialism
a. globalization
Non-material culture is also referred to as:

a. symbolic culture
b.cognitive culture
c. real culture
d. ideal culture
a. symbolic culture
In 1906 sociologists William Sumner made the comment "One's own group is the center of everything, and all others are scaled and rated with reference to it." This statement is most aligned with the concept of:

a. cultural relativism
b. ethnocentrism
c. the relativist fallacy
d. the cultural universal
d. ethnocentrism
To fully understand the Islamic practice of polygyny (men having multiple wives), it is necessary to use the perspective of:

a. cultural relativism
b. cultural universals
c. ethnocentrism
d. specificity
a. cultural relativism
In his book, "Sock Societies", anthropologist Robert Edgterton proposed that:

a. all cultures are worthy of respect
b. cultures should be evaluated on their "quality of life"
c. cultures should be compared to established western standards.
d. a formula be established to rate culture based on economic, political, and social practices.
b. cultures should be evaluated on their "quality of life"
A person who was preoccupied with understanding gestures would concentrate on:

a. the word choice of those who spoke him
b. the way individual used their bodies
c. how another individual was dressed
d. how other individuals pronounced words
b. the way individuals used their bodies
Symbols can be strung together in and infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicated abstract thought. This is referred to as:

a. technology
b. body gestures
c. language
d. tradition
c. language
Which statement is LEAST accurate regarding language?

a. language is the primary method people communicate with one another.
b. language is based on a series of sumboles that can be strung together in an infinite number of ways.
c. language is universal in terms of the meaning of particular sounds.
d. language allows culture to exist.
c. language is universal in terms of the meaning of particular sounds.
Sociologists use the term ____ to indicate the standards by which people define their ideas about what is desirable in life.

a. norms
b. mores
c. values
d. sanctions
c. values
Sociologists use the concept "norms" to describe:

a. the standards by which people define what is socially desirable
b. expressions of disapproval for violating socially acceptable behavior
c. ideas about what is true or false
d. the expectations, or rules of behavior that develop out of values.
d. the expectations, or rules of behavior that develop out of values
When a group has a distinctive way of looking at life, but at the same time their values and norms reflect the dominant culture of their society, the group would be considered a(an):

a. counterculture
b. underground culture
c. subdominant culture
d. subculture
d. subculture
A society which is made up of many different religious, racial and ethnic groups would be best describes as:

a. monotheistic
b. subcultural
c. pluralistic
d. counter cultural
c. pluralistic
The coexistence of such values of democracy and equality alongside of sexism and group superiority illustrates condition of:

a. value clusters
b. value strain
c. value inconsistency
d. value contradiction
d. value contradiction
When social values contradict one another, such contradictions can serve as a source of:

a. social consensus
b. social change
c. social integration
d. social solidarity
b. social change
Americans are expected to go far in school, work hard and attain a high level of material comfort as a demonstration of success. The interrelated values of education, hard work and success would be an example of:

a. emergent values
b. a value cluster
c. a change in the society's values
d. normative culture
b. a value cluster
the intense controversy between pro-choice and pro-life advocates that has resulted in violence can best be described as a(an):

a. cultural contradiction
b. ideological conflict
c. culture strain
d. culture war
d. culture war
Americans glorify academic progress and material success. However, most students do not graduate with honors and most citizens are not wealthy. This condition characterizes the difference between _____and ______.

a. material culture; symbolic culture
b. ideal culture; real culture
c. real culture; symbolic culture
d. unrealistic culture; realistic culture
b. ideal culture; real culture
Sociologists have concluded that although certain behaviors qualify as cultural universals, the forms these behaviors take are:

a. different from group to group
b. defined in a similar way from group to group
c. the result of people's biological needs
d. left to the individual to specifically define
a. different from group to group
Pigs, spiders, elephants and toher animals that rely solely on instinct act as they do because they lack a:

a. cerebral cortex
b. brain
c. central nervous system
d. autonomic nervous system
a. cerebral cortex
The term coined by sociologist William Ogburn to describe a situation in which non-material culture changes slower than material culture was:

a. cultural lag
b. cultural imperatives
c. cultural response
d. cultural adaptation
a. cultural lag
In recent years, cultures have become more similar to each other as a result of travel and communication. Sociologists use the term, _____, to describe this process.

a. cultural bridging
b. cultural adaptation
c. cultural dissolution
d. cultural leveling
d. cultural leveling
In the "Nature vs. Nurture" debate regarding socialization, the "nurture" component refers to:

a. heredity
b. the social environment
c. genetics
d. chromosome capability
b. the social environment
_____ is the key to human development, because without people have no mechanism for developing thought.

a. advanced intellectual capability
b. heredity
c. instinct
d. language
d. language
Studies of isolated and institutionalized children point out the importance of _____ in acquiring the basic "human" traits we take for granted.

a. biological factors
b. education
c. intimate early social interaction
d. discipline
d. intimate early social interaction
______ is the process by which we learn the ways of particular groups.

a. self actualization
b. socialization
c. culturalization
d. self-conceptualization
b. socialization
According to Charles Horton Cooley, we develop a self-concept:

a. by inheriting genetic characteristics from our parents.
b. by learning self-discipline
c. by interpreting our feelings about ourselves
d. by interpreting how others thing about us
b. by interpreting how others think about us
According to George Herbert Mead, we acquire a sense of self:

a. through the "looking-glass self"
b. when we evaluate ourselves in a positive way
c. when we can think abstractly
d. when we learn to take the role of the other
d. when we learn to take the role of the other
Jean Piaget's use of the therm "operational" means much the same as:

a. motor skills
b. reasoning skills
c. language skills
d. medical skills
b. reasoning skills
In Freud's theory on the development of personality, the concept of the superego is comparable to the sociological notion of:

a. the culture within us
b. primary group affiliation
c. ethnocentrism
d. libido
a. the culture within us
When Ken is happy, he smiles with pleasure. When Barbie is happy, she squeals with glee. This illustrates the consequences of

a. the ego providing the balancing force between the id and the demands of society.
b. the impact of gender role socialization
c. inadequate socialization
d. the "I" aspect of personality
b. the impact of gender role socializtion
In his theory on the Development the Morality, Lawrence Kohlberg claimed that most people do not reach the final stage of his theory, known as the:

a. concrete operational stage
b. formal operational stage
c. self actualization stage
d. postconventional stage
d. postconventional stage
Psychologists, Susan Goldberg and Michael Lewis, observed the interactions of mothers and children to determine if the children were socialized differently, depending on the child's sex. They found that mothers:

a. socialized their sons to be passive and dependent
b. tended to treat their children the same, no matter the sex.
c. unconsciously rewarded daughter for being dependent.
d. kept their sons closer to them when they played
c. unconsciously rewarded daughters for being dependent
The gender message in the mass media, as described in the textbook, is that gender serves as a primary basis for:

a. the difference in intellectual capability between boys and girls
b. the division of labor in society
c. social inequality
d. vocational aspirations in western cultures
c. social inequality
People and groups that influence our orientation to life, our self-concept, emotions, attitudes, and behavior are called:

a. total institutions
b. generalized others
c. agents of socialization
d. out groups
c. agents of socialization
Kohn's research suggests that parents who work jobs in which they are closely supervised and which allow them little freedom tend to emphasize _____when socializing their children.

a. autonomy and creativity
b. obedience and conformity
c. aggressiveness and athletic skill
d. conservative political views
b. obedience and conformity
Although formal education is intended to transmit knowledge and skills, it unintentionally teaches students that the same rules apply to everyone. The universality reflects what sociologists describe as:

a. signaling system
b. a pattern variable
c. a latent function
d. a manifest function
c. a latent function
Researcher have found that he more hours per week that children were in daycare, the:

a. stronger the bonds between mothers and children
b. weaker the bods between mothers and children
c. weekly hours spend in daycare had no effect on the bonds
d. children developed stronger bonds with the staff
b. weaker the bonds between mothers and children
______ is the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors.

a. resocialization
b. socialization
c. the "looking-glass self"
d. anticipatory socialization
a. resocialization
Which of the following would be the best example of a total institution?

a. a military boot camp
b. a university
c. attending a parochial high school
d. a boy scout troop
a. a military boot camp
What comes to be considered "childhood" is dependent upon:

a. the age of the child
b. social definitions of childhood
c. the child's parents
d. the size of the child
b. social definitions of childhood
Sociologists believe that the key to explaining our behavior is:

a. effective socialization
b. our biological makeup
c. our socially constructed self
d. our temperament
c. our socially constructed self