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Associations of menin Italian cities such as Milan, Florence, Genoa, and Pisa who sought political and economic independence from local nobles; wantedself-government - Page 417
Court of Star Chamber
A division of the English royal council, a court that used Roman legal procedures to curb real or potential threats from the nobility, the court so called because there were stars painted on the ceiling of the chamber in which the court sat - Page 445
Popular groups in spanish towns given royal authority to serve as local police forces and as judicial tribunals with the goal of reducing aristocratic violence - Page 445
Term first used by Florentine rhetorician Leonard Bruni as a general word for "the new learning" the critical study of Latin and Greek literature, with the goal of realized human potential - Page 422
Another basic feature of the Italian renaissance stressing personality, uniqueness, genius, and self-consciousness - Page 421
Justices of the Peace
English local officials in the shires appointed by the crown and given wide authority in local government - Page 445
Term applied to Jews who accepted Christianity but since many had become Christian centuries earlier, the word "new" is not accurate; Spanish nationalism stressed "purity of blood" - Page 447
Governments by the merchant aristocracy in Italian cities, such as Venice and Florence - Page 418
Disenfranchised people in Italian communes who resented their exclusion from power - Pager 417
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
Statement of French King Charles VII asserting royal control over church appointments and the superiority of a general council over the papacy - Page 444
The place where rulers lived, conducted business, and displayed their wealth and patronage of the arts - Page 418
Non-Monarchial government in which political power theoretically resides in the people and is exercised by its chosen representatives - Page 417
The body of men who happened to be with the king at a given time and usually including his chief officials; renaissance princes tended to prefer middle class councilors to noble ones - Page 444
Attitude that tends to find the ultimate explanation of everything and the final end of human beings in what reason and the senses can discover, rather than in any spiritual or transcendental belief - Page 423
Painted for the Medici Family and Savonarola. He painted the Adoration of the Magi and the Birth of Venus
He wrote The Courtier, about how to become a true Renaissance man: the best man is one who shows competence and confidence
He was an architect who used mathematics, proportions, and balance to build a dome (for the roof of the Basilica)
Leonardo da Vinci
He was a true Renaissance Man: he was a painter, sculptor, engineer, and scientist. He was Florentine, but worked in Milan, Rome, and France. He is most famous for the Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, and Vetruvian Man
He rejected Scholasticism. He is famous for discrediting the Donation of Constantine, as well as rejecting stoicism or emotional flatlining. He supported the showing your emotions
He wrote one of the most important books in history, the Prince. The book was on ways to gain, keep, and expand power
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