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199 terms

Ant 202 Final

Not cumulative over the whole semester.
STUDY
PLAY
Formative
sedentism, large communities (associated with agriculture)
Archaic
broad spectrum hunting and gathering
Social stratification
society is divided into groups that have difference access to resources
Paramount chief
the highest level chief or political leader in a region or area
Civilization
cities, monumental architecture, state government
Primary traits of civilization
urbanization (cities), full time labor specialization, social stratification (society is divided into groups), concentration surplus
Paleoindian
before 8,000 b.c.
Secondary traits of civilization
major water control systems, writing, monumental public architecture, classic, post classic
Classic
peak of cultural achievement
Post-Classic
civilizations that follow the decline of a classic civilization
Chiefdoms
political level of organization, one man (paramount chief) with special skills is the leader of a certain area
States
complex social organizations, centralized accumulation of capital/social status/long distance trade, division of labor, craft specialization, record keeping, public buildings and monumental architecture, all-embracing state religion
Urbanization
taking the characteristics of a city
Labor specialization
when certain jobs are performed by particular individuals
Medieval Climatic Anomaly
a period of warm climate 800-1350 A.D.
Writing
a technology for storing, manipulating, and communicating data
Pharaoh
a ruler in ancient Egypt
Human sacrifice
the act of killing one or more human beings as part of a religious ritual
Extirpation
wiping out a species locally
Bandkeramic
in Germany, 5300-4000 b.c., created Banderamic pottery
Ancestral Pueblo
aka the Anasazi, 100-1600 a.d.,
Cochise culture
pre-ceramic culture in the south west, paleo-indian
Hohokam San Pedro Phase
500bc-200ad, pre Hohokam culture, no pottery, had dart points and atlatls, corn, increasing sedentism
Anasazi Basketmaker II
500b.c. - 600a.d., no pottery, heavy reliance on corn and squash, corn agriculture, many storage pits, fair degree of sedentism, formal and deep pithouses, baskets, sandals, and nets were created
Anasazi Basketmaker III
600-750 a.d.,the first truely well made pottery in the south west, this is where pottery begins, lived in pithouses, domesticated beans
Anasazi Pueblo I
750-900 a.d., shift to above ground architecture (or pueblos)
Anasazi Pueblo II
900-1150 a.d., major and rapid population growth, were above ground in pueblo villages, three majors centers for Anasazi activity: Chaco Canyon, Mesa Verde, and Rio Grande Pueblos, corrugated pottery, had a state, interpersonal violence and cannibalism
Anasazi Pueblo III
1150-1300, first lived in cliffs, had sophisticated pottery, where they lived was abandoned in the end of the period, signs of violence, great droucght of A.D. 1276-1299, multicolored pottery
Anasazi Pueblo IV
1300-1400 a.d., more abandonments, late comers arrive (Navajo and Apache), Spanish explorer Coronado shows up not long after the collapse of the Hohokam
Mogollon Pithouse
200-100 a.d., pithouses are a serious use of corn, first pottery (brown color)
Mogollon Pueblo
1000-1300 a.d., beginning of above ground architecture, pithouses still continued, very sophisticated pottery, great kivas were built (large ceremonial structures)
Hohokam Late Preclassic
persistence of pithouses, thousands of pithouses would distinguish a huge town, long canal systems, ball courts
Hohokam Classic Period
1150-1400 a.d., shift to above ground architecture, switch from ball courts to Platform mounds, chiefdoms, multicolored pottery
Eastern North AmericaFormative
200-500 b.c., some domestication of goosefoot and sunflower
Eastern North America Woodland
post 500 b.c., mounds and greater reliance on domesticates, cremation, marked increase in pottery
Apache
came down from the North to take over the Anasazi
Navajo
came down from the North to take over the Anasazi
Zuni
modern descendents of the Anasazi
Hopi
modern descendents of the Anasazi
Pima
modern Native American people living in central Arizona
Papago
modern day North American indians who live in Arizona
Woodland Period
(post 5000 BC)(some areas post 1000BC)in between archaic hunter gatheres and the Mississipian culture
Moundbuilders
constructed various styles of religious mounds for religious and ceremonial purposes, Southeast American cultures
Adena Culture
500 b.c. - 400 a.d., burial mounds, earthworks in square shape, beginning of long distance trade
Hopewell Culture
100-400 a.d., serpent mounds, between .25 and .5 miles long
Mississippian Culture
1000-1500 a.d., based on intense maize horticulture, more storage features, larger and more dense settlements in river valleys, platform mounds, planned and fenced settlements,
Southern Cult
a term given to a series of artistic motifs and associated religious beliefs of the Mississippian culture
Olmec
1500-500 b.c., lowland mesoamerica massive stone heads, earthen pyramids, distinctive artistic styles, glyphs
Formative Maya
1400 b.c. - 250 a.d., massive city, six square miles, monumental structures, large residential compounds, long distance trade
Classic Maya
250-850 a.d., political structures of multiple competing kingdoms, calender begins 3114 b.c., divine kingship, stond pyramid temples, astronomy, unique architectural styles
Teotihuacan
classic highland mexico, 200 b.c. - 750 a.d., obsidian, more than 5,000 structures, population was around 175,000, pyramid of the sun, avenue of the dead, pyramid of the moon, no ball courts, no writing
Toltecs
post classic highland mexico, had a lot of human sacrafices, capital was Tula, much smaller than the Teotihuacan, two ball courts, sculpted columns, Chacmool figures
Aztecs
1200-1521 a.d., derived from chichimecas, chinampas agriculture, picture writing, human sacrafices, Cortez (Spanish ruler) conquered them, last mesoamerican civilization
Chavin
900-1500 b.c., center of a religious cult, used hallucinigens, North coast
Pre-ceramic
also known as Caral-Supe, 3000-1800 b.c., pyramids, irrigation, avocado, beans, cotton, possibly quipu
Old Kingdom
3rd dynasty to 6th dynasty
New Kingdom
peak of Egypt's power, 1600-1100 b.c.
Chichimecas
the culture that the Aztecs derived from
Pochteca
long distance traveling merchants of the Aztec empire
Caral-Supe
(3000 - 1800 BC) Pyramids, irrigation, avocados, beans, cotton, possibly a quipu, earliest evidence for civilization in South America, state or independent communities?
Chimu
1000-1475 a.d., had a walled city, were taken over the by the Inca
Moche
flat topped adobe pyramids, pyramid of the sun and pyramid of the moon, craftsmanship in metal and pottery, irrigation
Inca
1438-1534 a.d., capital was Cuzco, in the Andes, the Incan state started in the Southern islands but then expanded to an empire in 1476 with the conquest of Chimu state, remarkable stonework, oral history, road system, no writing system, Mach picchu
Sumerians
created earliest literature, epic of Gilgamesh is an example
Mexica
indigenous people of the valley of Mexico, rulers of the Aztec empire, were the Nahua people
Tiwanaku
(450 a.d.)a site on the eastern side of the lake in Peru, was an economic and religious force
Wari
in the ayachucho valley, highland urban and ceremonial center that stands on a hill
Lekson's theory of the Chacoan state
what was found at the Chaco Canyon represents a state political structure
Cannibalism in the SW
found flesh in human coprolite, may have used cannibalism as a form of intimidation
The case for inter-group violence and raiding in the Anasazi area
groups were raiding one another for food, the groups started building their houses on cliffs for defensive purposes, raiding created warefare between groups
The Great drought and its impacts
1276-1299 a.d., caused the abandonment of the Anasazi
The Olmec Horizon
the Olmec state could have been created from the product of conquest or product of trade
Childe's Urban Revolution
with civilization came full time labor specialization, and the craft's people making metal pushed society forward by improving farming technology, this allowed societies to produce more food, this created a need for traders, and this created a need for accountants to keep track of surplus, and all of this required leaders to allocate it
Boserup's population pressure theory
civilization was just a response to population growth and population pressure
The Hydraulic state
created by Karl Wittfogel, the hierarchical power structure of states come from the management needs associated with large scale irrigation
Cairnero's theory concerning the organizational requirements of warfare
the hierarchical power structure of states comes from the management needs of warefare
Theories of the Mayan collapse
endemic warfare, failed agricultural system, external environmental factors (like droughts and hurricanes)
Maritime foundations hypothesis
thins happen in Peru before the New World is because of the tremendously rich frish resource base
Patrick Culbert's theory of the Mayan collapse
as the population rose it was hard for the Mayans to have an environment that could produce the agriculture needed to sustain a the population, also all of the agricultural fields were far from the city, so they might not have had enough workers to keep the crops healthy
Thomas Lynch
investigated Guittaro Cave
Esther Boserup
created the population pressure theory
Christy Turner
believed there was interpersonal violence and cannibalism going on in the Southwestern North America, noticed charnel deposits (processed human bones)
Tim White
also believed there was interpersonal violence and cannibalism going on in the Southwestern North America, noticed human bones were worn due to the rubbing against pots
Steven Lekson
created the theory that Chacao canyon is the center of a state
Jonathan Haas
one of the founders of the Caral-Super Pre-ceramic civilization, also noticed signs of violence in the Pueblo 3 period
Winnifred Creamer
one of the founders of the Caral-Super Pre-ceramic civilization, also noticed signs of violence in the Pueblo 3 period
Coronado
Spanish explorer who shows up not long after the collapse of the Hohokam
Quetzalcoatl
a feathered serpent god, worshipped by the Toltecs
Narmer
first Egyptian pharaoh (3100 b.c.)
King Tut
new kingdom pharaoh
V. Gordon Childe
created the "urban revolution" theory
Karl Wittfogel
created the hydrolic state theory
Robert Carneiro
created the warefare theory (hierarchical power of structure comes from the management needs of warefare)
Ruth Shady-Solis
one of the founders of the Caral-Super Pre-ceramic civilization, was the Peruvian one
Michael Moseley
created the Maritime foundations hypothesis
Michael Coe
studied the Mayan culture
Monteczuma
Aztec emperor, was taken over by Cortez
John Rick
investigated Chavin
Walter Alva
excavated burials by Moche at Sipan
Hernan Cortez
a Spanish explorer that conquered Moctezuma
Pizarro
conquered the Inca in 1534
Pachacuti
first powerful ruler of the Inca
Atahualpa
last ruler of the Incan people
Huascar
brother of Atahualpa, wasn't fully Incan, tried to get the empire over Atahualpa
Henges
circular ditches
Megaliths
large stone structures or groups of standing stones, large contructions involving one or muliple stones
Corporate burial mounds
mounds of earth, people were buried in there
Buff-colored pottery
(Hohokam) very first type of pottery, orangish
Gray pottery
(Anasazi), first truly well made pottery in the Southwest
Brown pottery
(Mogollon), often found in pithouses
Coprolites
fossilized poop
Hearths
the floor of a fireplace
Arrow points
used them with atlatls, sometimes they had poisonous tips
Pictographs
a picture representing a word or idea
Petroglyphs
a rock carving, art is pecked into the rocks
Pithouses
semi subterranean house, has post molds for vertical beams holding up a roof
Canals
an artificial waterway used to direct water to a certain area
Polychrome pottery
multicolored pottery, with a lot more elaborate symbolism
Kivas
used by Puebloans, a chamber that is partially or fully under ground, used for religous rights
Great kivas
large, round subsurface ceremonial structures, "prehistoric churches"
Pueblos
large community built above the ground
Great Houses
built by ancestral pueblo people
Chaco Roads
the Anasazi built major roads that connected the cities
Corrugated pottery
pottery with grooves in it, form of decoration
Charnel deposits
deposits of human bones that have been processed the same way that animal bones are
Quipu
nets, used to record information in knots
Lanzon
name for the most important statue in the Chavin culture in Peru
New kingdom tombs
pharaohs and elite would get a burial with riches and they would be buried in a pyramid
Monk's Mound
3rd largest prehistoric structure in the new world, 25,000 people at the height of occupancy
Midden
prehistoric garbage/waste
Palisade
a fence
Atlatl
precursor to the bow and arrow, was like and extended arm
Arrow points
sometimes the tips would be dipped in poison
Postholes
(postmolds), large holes in the ground where support beams could be inserted
Codices
an ancient manuscript text in book form
Temples
a building devoted to reglious worship
Ball courts
where the ball game was played, which was a game of life and death, prisoners were forced to play, losers would be sacrificed
Platform mounds
structures made out of Earth
Monumental architecture
architecture forms that symbolize power and authority
Urbanism
the lifestyle of city dwellers
Writing
a method of storing, manipulating, and sharing information
Clay and earthen flat-topped mounds
part of the Hopewell culture, buried to contain sacred objects or graves
Ziggurats
stepped pyramids that were temples
Huge stone heads
built by the Olmec in Mesoamerica
Hieroglyphic script
scripts written in hieroglyphs (symbols)
Divine kingship
a state religion where an emperor is worshipped as a demigod
Mayan calendar
begins 3114 b.c.
Pyramid of the sun
Teotihuacan pyramid, was the biggest one
Avenue of the Dead
Teotihuacan road, was one mile long, went through the city
Pyramid of the Moon
was a big pyramid at the end of the avenue of the dead
Citadel
a square Teotihuacan enclosure with small pyramids along the sides
Chinampas
form of agriculture used by the chichimecas in the wetland, is the opposite of irrigation
Hieroglyphics
symbols or writing that is hard to decipher
Rosetta stone
rock that had 3 different languages on it, all were written about the same passage
Pyramid of Khufu
the great pyramid of Giza, oldest and largest of the three pyramids in Giza
Cuneiform
writing on clay tablets
Obsidian sourcing
a method of tracing ancient exchange by finding out where the toolmaking stone came from and seeing what areas it has shown up in
Guitarrero Cave
Andean South America first occupied 8000 BC, by 3000 BC llamas replace deer and rabbits
Guila Naquitz
Mesoamerica site, pre-domestication (9000- 6000 BC), Kent Flannery
Stonehenge
(ditch 3000 BC, Stone circle 2000 BC), Western Europe, ritual function , time tracking
Catal Hoyuk
Turkey 7000 BC prehistoric "apartment complex " doors on roof? Protection, tremendous art on walls, 3D and 2D
Poverty Point
Unusual Example of late Archaic site in the Southeast, dates from (1500 - 700 BC), precursor to later monumental construction, no farming, crude pottery
Chaco Canyon
Pueblo II Period of Anasazi, Interaction spheres, great houses, roads, planned, communities, great kivas, water control, Pueblo Bonito
Mesa Verde
Heavy Occupation of Anasazi Pueblo II period, Yellowjacket Ruin alone has 1800 rooms, housed maybe 2500 people
Pueblo Bonito
Located at Chaco Canyon, Anasazi Pubelo II Period, 800 rooms, living space, storage, religious space, D shaped multiple great kivas
Snaketown
Late Preclassic Hohokam town, thousands of pithouses, investigated by Haury
Tehuacan Valley
(10,000 BC - 1000 AD) MesoAmerica, series of sites, investigated by Richard MacNeish
La Venta
Olmec establishment, tombs alters, mosaic floor, possible Olmec writing, jaguar motifs
San Lorenzo
Olmec establishment, branches out and takes over nearby establishments, evidence on alter of Maya bounded by Olmec
El Mirador
(300 BC - 250 AD) Massive preclassic mayan city, 6 square miles, clear civilization, abandonded by 250 AD
Mayapan
last great Maya capital, dates from maya golden era to postclassic, pop 12k people,
Tikal
one of the four Mayan capitals, classic mayan era
Copan
one of the four Mayan capitals, classic mayan era
Palenque
one of the four Mayan capitals, classic mayan era
Calakmul
one of the four Mayan capitals, classic mayan era
Teotihuacan
(200 BC - 750 AD) Highland Mexico, largest city, obsidian, more than 5000 structures, pop 125-200k people, large pyramids, no ball courts, no writing, city of the gods, evidence for large fires
Tula
much smaller than Teotihuacan, two ball courts, sculpted columns, Chacmool figures, 4m warrior stone sculptures,
Tenochtitlan
(AD 1200 - 1521) capital of Aztecs, now Mexico City
Huaca del Sol
City of the Moche, flat topped adobe pryamids, remanents of thousands of houses, irrigation, pyramid of moon covered in murals, each level shows different people/different styles
Sipan
Moche site,produced the richest burial ever found in New World, 1000s of ceramic vessels, skeletons found that look as if thrown off pyramids, art suggesting sacrafice
Cusco
Capital of Inca, elevation 11,500 feet in the Andes,
Macchu Pichu
"Lost City of the Incans" located 7970 feet above se level, most archaeologists believe that it was built as an estate for the Incan emperor Pachacuti
Sacsayhuaman
...
Uribamba River
Inca Sacred Valley
Giza
Egyptian Pyramid of Khufu, largest pyramid 2600 BC, capital city of Old Kingdom, population about 30,000
Cahokia
Missouri, Mississippian culture, huge city, 25k people, Monk's Mound, 3rd largest prehistoric structure in New World, mound 72, 50 women laid out sacrafice
Serpent Mound
Hopewell Culture, mound in shape of serpent
Mesopotamia
Oldest civilizations in the world, irrigation system (6000-5000 BC), plow (4000 BC) , world's first writing (3400 BC), the wheel (4000 BC)
Ur
...
El Paraiso
(2000-1500 BC) South America, site which is the basis for the debate on the Marintime Foundation hypothesis
Monte Verde
Initial colonization in South America (14000 BP)
Chichen itza
(600 - 1200 AD) large Mayan civilization, center of political, economic, religious, and military power
Chavin de Huantar
(900 BC - 200 BC) center of apparent religious cult, sinister motifs, use of hallucinogens, no evidence for people living at temples, temples where initiates would come to be converted
Templo Major at Tenochtitlan
one of the main temples at Tenochtitlan, dedicated simultaneously two gods, god of rain and god of war, each of which had a seprate staircase and shrine on top
Uruk
First City (3600 - 3000 BC) monumental architecture (ziggurats) craft specialization, pronounced social differentiation, record keeping, metallurgy
San Jose Mogote
oldest permanent agricultural villages in Oaxaca , produced Mexico's oldest know defensive palisades and ceremonial buidlings (1300 BC), site of the Zapotec
Monte Alban
Zapotec socio-political and economic center for close to a thousand years, civic center situated atop an artificially leveld ridge, with an elevation of 6400 feet
San Bartolo
Mayan site, late preclasic mural paintings heavily influenced by Olmec tradition, site includes 85 foot pyramid
Hohokam Early Preclassic
(AD 200-750), first pottery, blain buff colored, reliance on corn and squash, corn agriculture widely spread, many storage pits, formal deep pithouses, dozens of pithouses in single locations, arrow points, bow and arrow