Physics study guide

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Terms in this set (71)
UNIT 8WaveAnd disturbance that travels through a medium transporting energy from one location to another location.MediumA substance or material that carries the wave.CrestThe highest part of a wave.AmplitudeThe height or depth of a wave measured from its equilibrium point to it's crest/trough.FrequencyThe number of ways that pass a fixed place in a given amount of time.RefractionThe change in direction of waves that occurs when waves travel from one medium to another.DiffractionThe bending of waves around obstacles and openings.AcousticsThe branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves.Doppler effectPerceived increase or decrease in frequency of sound, light, or other waves as the source and observer toward or away from each other.DecibelA unit used to measure the intensity of a sound.UNIT 9OpticsA branch of physics that deals with light and vision.OpaqueNot allowing light pass through.TranslucentPermitting light to pass through by diffusing it so that persons, objects, etc., on the op. cit. side are not clearly visible.ThermodynamicsBranch of physics that studies the effects of heat, work, and energy on a system.HeatThe transfer of Kinetic energy from one medium or object to another.TemperatureA measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter.ConductionThe transfer of heat from one atom or molecule to another through a substance or substances in physical contact with each other.ConvectionI transfer of heat by movement of a heated fluids such as air or water.First law of thermodynamicsEnergy cannot be created or destroyed.Second law of thermodynamicsNo reaction is 100% efficient some amount of energy in a reaction is always lost to heat.UNIT 10ElectricityThe flow of charged particles which are primarily electrons, but can also be protons or ions.ConductorsMaterials in which charges electrons can move freely such as I am, steel, and copper.InsulatorsMaterials in which charges electrons cannot move freely. (Plastic, wood, and glass.)AmpereThe SI unit for electric current.VoltageElectrical pressure that causes the electrons to move in a circuit.Transformeran electrical device that takes electricity of one voltage and changes it into another voltage.Ohm's lawRelationship between the voltage, electric current, and resistance and an electric current.WattSI unit for power.GeneratorA machine that takes mechanical energy and turns it into electrical energy.PolesLocation where a magnetic field enters a material and are the strongest magnetic magnetic points.UNIT 11CosmologyThe study of the universe at its largest scales.Hubble's lawThe precept of physics that states that the farther a galaxy is from us the faster is moving away from us.Kulper beltA region of the solar system beyond the orbit of Neptune containing various icy objects, dwarf planets, and millions of comments.AphelionThe point in the orbit of the planet or other celestial body where it is farthest away from the sun.PerihelionThe point in orbit of a planet or other celestial body where it is closest to the sun.EquinoxThe two points at which the sun crosses the celestial equator in its yearly path in the sky.Kepler's first lawA planet orbits the sun in an ellipse with the sun at one focus.Kepler second lawA ray directed from the sun to a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times.Retrograde motionThe phenomenon where the Celestial body appears to slow down, stop, then move in the opposite direction.SolsticeThe time of year where the sun appears furthest north or south of the celestial equator.UNIT 12Quantum mechanicsA branch of physics that analyzes particle interactions on the atomic and subatomic level.Unified field theoryI theory that seeks to describe all fundamental forces and the relationships between elementary particles in terms of a single mathematical framework.Theory of special relativityThe principle that the laws of physics are the same for all non-accelerating observers.Theory of general relativityThe principle that massive objects cause A distortion in space time.Quantum entanglementThe unusual behavior of elementary particles where they become linked.FermionSubatomic particle that makes up matter and has an odd half integer.QuarkOne of two classes of elementary particles of matter. They are affected by a strong nuclear force and are the basic building blocks for protons and neutrons.Higgs-boson particleA class of carrier particle responsible for mass.GluonThe force-caring particle responsible for the strong nuclear force, which holds quarks together.PhotonA quantum of light and the force - carrying particl responsible for the electromagnetic force.WORK QUESTIONSExplain the Big Bang theory in terms of space, time, and singularity.The Big Bang theory proposes that the universe was once extremely compact, dance, and hot, termed a singularity. The singularity didn't appear in space; rather, space begin inside of singularity. prior to the singularity nothing existed not space time or matter or energy. There is no explosion rather there was an expansion imaginable and popping and releasing its contents.Describe the percentages of the universe of dark energy, dark matter, and normal matter as described by contemporary science describe the percentages of the universe of dark energy, dark matter, and normal matter as described by contemporary science.Dark matter out ways visible matter roughly 6 to 1, making up 23% of all of the stuff in the universe.from various observations and calculations, it is estimated dark energy comprises about 73% of our universe. Then the rest is 4% atoms.Diagram the law of reflection.When a wave bounces off a straight barrier it will reflect in such a way that the angle at which it approaches the barrier equals the angle at which it reflects the barrier. Simply, then, the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.Four parts of a circuit1. Energy source 2. Load 3. Wires 4. Switch.Why earth experiences seasonsSeasons are caused by the fact that the earth is tilted on its axis by 23.5°. The northern hemisphere is tilted toward the sun in June making hotter weather and away from the sun in December making colder weather.