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ICAGAM303A - Combined
Terms in this set (85)
Heads are drawn in this shape
Determines the direction left or right that a head is looking
Determines the direction up or down that a head is looking
The eye on the far side of the head should be drawn a little smaller than the eye on the near side
Usually positioned so that they sit on the horizontal guideline
rounded body masses
This technique makes it easier to draw a character from different angles
line of action
A single line through a body that emphasises the dramatic effect
squash and stretch
A technique used to strengthen dramatic effect
Remains constant, even during squash and stretch
Is not affected by squash and stretch
Can be drawn quickly to give a framework for the drawing details
a frame in a timeline where a change will occur
a planning page that locates the position of objects in a timeline. Usually drawn in red.
a single drawing in an animation sequence
A drawing made in a scene that comes between the key frames.
a short animated sequence showing one complete cycle of a person or character walking
the most important frame in a walk cycle sequence, with the feet at their furthest extension
the natural method of maintaining balance when walking, such that when the right arm swings forward, the right leg is behind, and vice versa.
Good animation has _______ ________ all the time. They make movement seem balanced and natural.
a twist from one part of the body to another; a secret of dynamic posing.
a similarity between the two sides of something; can be your enemy when drawing characters
the pose in a walk cycle where the character impacts the ground; the lowest point in the cycle
the pose in a walk cycle where the character's body is stretched to the maximum, the leading leg is lifted forward and the heel of the trailing foot is just leaving the ground.
a diagram showing the timing of inbetweens from one key frame to another
preliminary sketches used when first setting out a pose; usually drawn using a blue pencil
taking a rough sketch and drawing the final outlines firmly and cleanly; usually using a black pen or dark pencil
using your fingers to quickly alternate between a small number of drawings in order to verify the details of an animation sequence
using your fingers to quickly preview the flow of an animation sequence
enclosure with lighting and translucent face of plastic or glass used for tracing drawings or drawing animation sequences
layering translucent images over one another to draw the inbetween images
every joint of a character's body should move in its own curved path
The speed at which frames progress in an animation. Measured usually in frames per second (fps).
The speed of animation used for television.
The speed of animation used for movies
Every frame is shown twice, so that the frame rate is 12 or 12.5 drawings per second
Another name for onion-skinning
A command that turns a particular mode on and off. Also, to switch back and forth between two modes.
moving an object or background across the screen.
shows how to draw the proportions and style of a character
to loop back to the beginning of an animation sequence.
the evil angel of death and ugliness.
The king of the bludges. andrews best friend.
sheets of transparent celluloid to which animated cartoon characters are painted on and photographed to give the illusion of movement
originally, cartoon characters were drawn on this material with a background drawn on a celluloid overlay
Gertie the Dinosaur (1914)
an early personality animation in which the background was traced on to every frame
traditional cel animation
cartoon characters are drawn on celluloid sheets overlaid on top of a static background
the year in which the traditional cel animation process was developed by Earl Hurd and John Bray
the outlines of rough cartoon drawings were transferred to the front of a celluloid sheet
paint is applied to the back of a celluloid sheet to produce smooth coloured areas
employed in early years to paint the animation frames
loss of clarity and colour due to the stacking up of multiple cel layers.
only a portion of a character, such as the lips, changes from frame to frame. Used in low budget productions.
a non-flammable alternative to celluloid. First used in 1934.
because of the cost of celluloid, character drawings were often washed off and the cel re-used
a process used to make a copy of a cartoon drawing. Today, we call it "photocopying"
the year in which xerography was developed
101 Dalmatians (1961)
a film that made extensive use of the xerography process
using the same colour for the outline as for the body of an object. Makes the characters soft, warm and believable. Used in early inked animations and in digital animations
a characteristic style of animations made using the xerography process. Background paintings often had a line art overlay for consistency
Computer Animated Production System. Developed by Disney and Pixar in the 1980's
The Rescuers Down Under (1990)
The first entirely digital animated feature film.
eliminates the problem of fogging, permits coloured outlines and an infinite colour palette
Princess Mononoke (1997)
one of the last feature films to use hand-painted cel animation
graphic organizers in the form of illustrations or images in sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing an animation
consists of pictures of the storyboard synchronized with the soundtrack. A lot of editing is done at this stage to eliminate unnecessary scene production
a small scale model that an animator can use to see what a character looks like in three dimensions
a printed table that breaks down the action, dialogue and sound frame-by-frame as a guide for animators
a drawing that defines the starting and ending points of any smooth transition
an animation tool that is used in traditional animation to keep the drawings in place
shooting on twos
one drawing is shown for every two frames of film, resulting in reduced production costs while maintaining satisfactory fluidity
a labour-saving techniques that uses the same sequence of drawings repeatedly to animate repetitive motions.
a special camera that moves a number of pieces of artwork past the camera at various speeds and distances to create a three-dimensional effect
tracing over actual film footage frame-by-frame using a lightbox, resulting in remarkably lifelike animations.
Squash and Stretch
Gives the illusion of weight and flexibility to an object as it moves. Importantly, the volume of the object does not change.
Prepares the audience for what is about to happen. Usually a small backward movement to direct the audience attention prior to a larger forward movement.
Objects in motion tend to follow curved paths, which become flatter as the object gains speed.
Follow Through and Overlapping Action
Creates the feeling of life, and flexibility. Nothing stops or starts all at once. Loose parts tend to stay in place as a body starts and continue forward after the main body stops.
Actions that are subordinate to, but support the main action and enriches the main action and adds more dimension to the character animation.
Slow-In / Slow-Out
Mimics physical world inertia and acceleration/deceleration, where objects start moving slowly and then gather speed.
The way an object moves and reacts in time can give a sense of character and emotion. A variety of slow and fast actions within a scene adds expression, interest and rhythm.
Straight Ahead / Pose to Pose
Two methods of constructing a sequence: from beginning to end, or by initially designing just the key positions. Affects the spontaneity/freshness and consistency/composition.
Encompasses all elements in a scene that help to convey the meaning and action within the scene and directs the audience's attention to the story or idea being told.
Making a movement or physical feature larger or more intense in order to heighten interest, gain attention or add humour. Must be used with restraint.
The basic principles of drawing form, anatomy, weight, volume, light and shadow to produce the illusion of three dimensions.
Includes an easy to read face, clear drawing and personality that will capture and attract the audience.
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