How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

144 terms

Beniretto Midterm

almost all Beniretto midterm information
STUDY
PLAY
Technic
Artifacts which are strictly useful
sociotechnic
Artifacts which show social class
ecofacts
Items associated with a site through natural preservation or insect remains
features
Things that cannot be taken back into the laboratory for analysis because they are actually part of the earth or because moving will alter or destroy them
records
Written or printed documents; paintings, murals
artifacts
Things that have been modified by humans
movement
The spread of products, ideas and people from one place to another
happens through migration, trade, and war
Why is movement important?
Because it can spread ideas and cultural characteristics from one place to another
ideotechnic
Artifacts which show a relationship
relics
Artifacts
region
An area or division of the world having definable characteristics both physical and cultural but not always fixed boundaries
Bias can be identified through four things:
1) the language used in the source
2) looking for missing information
3) finding information about the author or organization that sponsors the reports
4) agreeing completely with the source
How _____ can be identified
to make inferences, follow the steps: (4)
1) Select the main idea or literal interpretation
2) Look for clues that suggest additional meaning, such as key phrases or emotional words
3) Add the clues to the original interpretation
4) Create a revised meaning based on the connection between the stated idea and the implied idea
Needed to make ________
Geographic imagination
interprets the world around based on unique understandings, perceptions, knowledge, and is reflected in behavior toward others
Cultural Hybridity
results from movement and the interaction of various ideas, beliefs, and products
A frame of reference
explains, organizes experiences, and evaluates
The purpose of a frame of reference is to give basis for: (5)
beliefs, judgement, values, morals, ethics are the purpose of _____ __ ______?
Diffusionism
is the spread of cultural traits by contact of one culture with another
History can be considered an interpretation because: (3)
1) knowledge of past is incomplete
2) not all sources survive
3) no one person can be an expert of every aspect of the past
These are the reasons why _____ __ _ _______
A. Physical Place
"Far off there were blue hills. Much nearer, something moved, changed shape, vanished as the wavering airdistorted the distance, and then was there again, steady for a moment, three long, slightly arching necks with small heads."
A. Physical Place
B. Region
C. Interaction
D. Movement
E. Location
D. Movement
"They went slowly, clinging to the unfamiliar shore, in almost constant alarm, each night having to find a new place to roost."
A. Physical Place
B. Region
C. Interaction
D. Movement
E. Location
E. Location
"At length Mr. Multan tapped the map three times with his forefinger, 'You have been digging outside the area for which you have your license.'"
A. Physical Place
B. Region
C. Interaction
D. Movement
E. Location
B. Region
"The child clung to the rock, letting the broken waves of the bay wash over her, cooling the fierce sunlight... the sea was her home."
A. Physical Place
B. Region
C. Interaction
D. Movement
E. Location
C. Interaction
"The tribe used the bay because there were caves in low cliffs, deep in two of which water trickled down the rock. But food inside the bay was scarce, so normally they would have hunted the rocky inlets beyond for shellfish and shrimp and crabs and the little octupi that hid under boulders"
A. Physical Place
B. Region
C. Interaction
D. Movement
E. Location
B. Selection
When discovering the marks on the scapula that Winnie found, her father tells Winnie not to show her sketch to anyone in hopes to avoid 'unsubstantiated theorizing'
A. Bias
B. Selection
C. Can't be proficient in every field
D. Presentation
E. Information is missing
C. Can't be proficient in every field
"You hear the minister saying I got to take over everything? Can't do that all by myself, you know, so I;m going to need help. Experts. Pros. How'd you feel about that?"
A. Bias
B. Selection
C. Can't be proficient in every field
D. Presentation
E. Information is missing
E. Information is missing
When explaining the sea-ape theory, Winnie tells about a large gap of information three and a half million years ago.
A. Bias
B. Selection
C. Can't be proficient in every field
D. Presentation
E. Information is missing
D. Presentation
When explaining what 'news' is, the man tells Winnie that she should tell the reporters that she, a school girl found and put together shells that were smashed with a primitive tool instead of the real story of a recovery of a few bones.
A. Bias
B. Selection
C. Can't be proficient in every field
D. Presentation
E. Information is missing
A. Bias
"You think this is a tin-pot country. You think you can can come here and take what you wish. You think you can take treasures out of our soil and we will not know what you are taking because we are savages."
A. Bias
B. Selection
C. Can't be proficient in every field
D. Presentation
E. Information is missing
For an explanation to be considered scientific, it must: (3)
1) Explain a maximum number of observations with minimum assumptions
2) be tested
3) be compatible with a well established body of theory
For an _______ to be considered _______, it must...
There can be exceptions to a rule because: (3)
1) observation can be affected by more than one principle
2) there can be errors in measurements
3) there can be differences in perception
There can be ______ to a ____ because...
Malthus's Theory
struggle for resources is inevitable, restraints on population growth is necessary, population rises faster than food supply, war and disease are good for curtailing population growth, let poor people die
Sumer
Plutarch's Theory
Great men and their character
Great men change history-not necessarily "good"
Ex. Hitler, Voldemort
Assyrians
Toynbee's Theory
Challenge and Response
Faced with crisis, response determines survival
ADAPT OR DIE
Sumer
Darwin's Theory
Origin of Species
complex creatures evolve from simple creatures over time
Survival of the Fittest
Marx's Theory
Material Dialectic
Ruling class controls means of production
Conflict between classes
Turner's Theory
Geography and the frontier
Geography gives people advantages and disadvantages
Assyrians
Radicals
"history is the history of winners"
winners write history books, losers are excluded
Babylonians
Boorstin
Change cannot be managed
No one can predict
Hittites
Law of Superposition
Charles Lyell
Lower is Older
Three Age Theory
Christian Thomsen
Stone Age then Bronze Age then Iron Age
For a theory to be considered good, it must be...(3)
parsimonious
powerful
predictive
Uniformitarianism
1) states events of the past must be explainable by processes that can be observed
2) is demonstrated by the process of erosion
Uncertainty
Bottom Level of Funnel of Certainty
Speculation
Second to bottom level on funnel of certainty
Probable Theory
Middle level on funnel of certainty
Law
Second to top level on funnel of certainty
Reality
top level on funnel of certainty
hafting
Fixing a handle to a cutting edge
Foramen Magnum
opening in the skull through which the spinal cord passes
Marrow
Flexible tissue found in the interior of bones
Oldowan
oldest known tools made by chipping stones
herbivore
four-legged animal which feeds on plants
Suclus
fold on the surface of the brain behind the browridge
interglacial
a warm period between glacial epochs
Bifacial
chipping stone from both sides to produce a symmetrical I cutting edge
Blade and Burin Societies
groups that make tools in order to make tools
atlatl
device for throwing a spear or dart
Frontal lobe
brain area responsible for making decisions, reasoning, problem solving, preparing for future
loess
dust or soil carried by the wind
bi-pedal
to move about on two feet
knapping
to shape (as flints) by breaking off pieces
microliths
a tiny blade tool: often set in a bone or a wooden haft
Archulean
large cutting tools, primarily hand axes and cleavers
Reason for the development from ape to fully modern human
the mutually enriching interaction between mental and manual skill
Disadvantages of bipedalism (3)
1) walking on hind legs of body with body held vertical is complicated
2) it is difficult to balance
3) speed is decreased
Advantages of bipedalism (3)
1) it helps with infants
2) it helps with cooling of the body
3) food gathering facilitated
Sweating was important in human development because... (1)
it was a substitute for panting which could cause hyperventilation with long exertion
played a role in human development (3)
foods rich in protein
dexterity in manual skills
climate changes which changed the environment
which did not play a role in human development?
increase in number of predetors
increased cranium size resulted in:
offspring being born helpless
Conditions during the ice age included:
the polar regions increased in size
there was a world wide drought
Absolute Location
referring to the exact spot on the earth's surface as measured by latitude and longitude
acculturation
members of one culture adopt features of another
OR: cultural modification of an individual, group, or people by adapting to or borrowing traits from another culture;
OR: a merging of cultures as a result of prolonged contact
Alluvial
pertaining to a deposit of sand, silt, or clay formed by flowing water
Annealing
to heat and then cool usually for softening and making less brittle
Antiphonal
a type of music in which two or more groups of voices or instruments alternate with eachother
Aurignacians
-were the first dynamic innovators and almost surely the first artists
-first to make tools in order to make tools
Gravettians
-were the first to create fired ceramic figurines
-their cultural traditions were eventually centered in central and eastern Europe, particularly in the loess lands of the Moravian region and southern Russia, where they became great mammoth hunters
-dispersed leadership
-blade and burin technology
Magdelenians
-they developed their art to an extraordinary height of feeling and execution. They were equally masters whether masters whether working on large scale or small, on engravings, reliefs, or in the round.
-it was they who painted the greatest masterpieces of monumental cave art
-climatic changes also enabled some to move northward with the reindeer and occupy new hunting grounds in Denmark and Northern Germany
-cut and stitched clothes
-invented atlatl
-used microliths and grinders
Natufians
-a perfect example of the way of life intermediate between that of the hunters and the farmer
-they were hunter-gatherers, foraging for food such as emmer wheat, barley, and almonds and hunting gazelle, deer, cattle, horse, and wild boar. For at least part of the year, they lived in communities.
-Artifacts include grinding stones, used to process seeds, dried meats, and fish for planned meals, and ochre for likley ritual practices. Flint and bone tools, and dentalium shell ornaments are also part of the assemblage.
-first farmers-first to use wheat/grain
Australopithecus
mainly herbivores
Southern ape
could not adapt to change in environment
taken over by more efficient herbivores
bipedal
sweat
Homo Habilis
-bigger brains
-OMNIVORES-caused brain development, led to reciprocal relationships, increased geographical frontiers
-Oldowan tools
-Developed curiosity
-black teeth
-'skillful/handy man'
-Olduvai Gorge
Homo erectus/egaster
-Hairless bodies, long noses, and internal cooling systems so they could hunt
-Had very big brains, logic
-relationships
-acheulean tools
-meaning 'upright man'
-DISCOVERED FIRE-caused leisure
taller
runners
Neanderthal
-first burials
-rich, cultural life
-cared for elderly and crippled
-large, strong teeth
-north
-broad flat noses used to warm air
-big lower jaw
-bun on back of skull
physically adapted to climate
Homo Sapien
-strong imaginations-frontal lobe
-spread throughout the world
-strong relationships
-opposable thumbs
B. Civilization separates man from nature
Gilgamesh and Enkidu travel to the forbidden cedar forest. They kill the protector, Humbaba, ignoring his pleas for life. They then steal the trees, make the tallest into a gate, and make a raft out of the rest.
A. The meaning of life
B. Civilization separates man from nature
C. Church vs. State
D. The Gods are dangerous
E. Personal immortality
D. The Gods are dangerous
Utnapishtim tells Gilgamesh the story of the flood where Ea warned him to make a boat and take all of the kinds of animals and his family with him. After the flood, the gods regretted what they had done.
A. The meaning of life
B. Civilization separates man from nature
C. Church vs. State
D. The Gods are dangerous
E. Personal immortality
C. Church vs. State
Ishtar professes her love to Gilgamesh. When Gilgamesh rejects her, she is angry and sends the Bull of Heaven down upon earth with seven years of famine. Gilgamesh and Enkidu wrestle the bull and kill it.
A. The meaning of life
B. Civilization separates man from nature
C. Church vs. State
D. The Gods are dangerous
E. Personal immortality
E. Personal immortality
Life is short, two warriors tell each other on their way to the deadly confrontation in the Cedar forest, and the only thing that lasts is fame.
A. The meaning of life
B. Civilization separates man from nature
C. Church vs. State
D. The Gods are dangerous
E. Personal immortality
A. The meaning of life
Gilgamesh, what you seek you will never find... Let your every day be full of joy, love the child that holds your hand, let your wife delight in your embrace, for these alone are the concerns of humanity.
A. The meaning of life
B. Civilization separates man from nature
C. Church vs. State
D. The Gods are dangerous
E. Personal immortality
Individualism
A doctrine that the interests of the person are paramount
Homo Oeconomicus
Economic man whose relations are bound by secular law
Apsu
Great sea of fresh water near ancient Eridu
Water god
Edin
Sumerian word for grasslands from which the word Eden comes
internecine
relating to, or involving a conflict within a group
idiosyncrasy
an individualizing characteristic or quality
Alluvial
Pertaining to clay, silt deposited by running water
salinzation
impregnate with salt
caused by over irrigating
Tenets
a principle or belief held to be true
Continuity
uninterrupted duration especially without essential change
Hittites
Laws were humane: substituting compensation for punishment
Ashur
spiritual capital of Assyria
Nineveh
final capital of Assyria
Nimrud
military capital of Assyria
Lex talionis
law of equal and direct retribution
Basic Tenets of the Modern West
possessive individualism, free market philosophy, and scientific utility
Imaginative Literature
Enduring legacy of Mesopatamia
Epic of Gilgamesh
first epic poem recorded
Key arts of civilization
creation of organized communities, the arrival of the temple, the city, and kingship
the site of the ancient shrines
The cities of ancient Sumer emerged on...
Two most ancient confrontations in human history
nomad vs. sedentary farmer
hill people vs. people of the plains
Written law assumes...
an independent character beyond the authority that administers it
Where did kinship (political society) first come to earth?
the mound of creation that was the first land that rose from primeval waters
Common markers of material civilization
bronze technology
writing
great ceremonial buildings
monumental art
Material markers hide:
The ultimate goals of civilization
The ultimate goals of organized human life on earth includes (4)___ ends.
moral, intellectual, political, spiritual
Factors that brought about the fall of Mesopotamian civilization include:
internecine warfare, gloomy prophesies I, increased salinization, and inflation
Hittite Religion
the gods grew out of environment and local deities
mountains were considered sacred
principal deity was female
religion and ritual were to placate and appease gods
Hittite warfare
depended on a combo of military force and diplomatic ties with buffer states
used the army's infantry and chariots
had cities built as fortifications meant to be part of the offense of the country
proved righteousness of the cause by victory in battle
Administration
_______ prevents retribution for wrongs to escalate into a cycle of mutual revenge
Retribution
Exact revenge is the basic cultural mechanism for dealing with unacceptable behavior. This is _______
Nebuchadnezzer
King _______ forced a large part of the Jewish population to relocate, largely upper class people and craftspeople; this deportation marks the beginning of the Exile in Jewish history.
Sargon
First king to establish an empire-Akkadian
Hammurabi
Centralization of the monarchy was the greatest innovation of...
Legimation of Authority
In order for any government to perform effectively, then, those in power must convince everyone else that they have...
Law
...is written and administered retribution and conflict resolution
Sumerians
at first justified the monarch's authority based on some sort of divine selection, but later began to assert that the monarch himself was divine and worthy of worship
Written
_____ law assumes an independent character beyond the centralized authority that administers it
Hittites
first to establish social classes/give consequences for crimes on a sliding scale based on social class
they had a federal state ruled by a king whose power was controlled by a council of nobles.
Queen reigned almost co-equal and retained status at death of king
Assyria
their army was the largest standing army ever seen in the middle east or mediterranean
Horticulture
cultivating crops for harvesting in a sedentary lifestyle
Agriculture
tilling the soil, producing large amounts of crops, and raising livestock
Behavior
the response of an individual, group, or species to its environment
Civilization
stage of cultural development marked by writing and keeping written records
Enculturation
process by which an individual learns the traditional content of a culture and assimilates its practices and values
cultural template
body of learned behaviors common to a given human society, acts as a template
Beliefs
anything considered to be true, right, and important
Nation
state which shares a common identity based on language, ideals, shared rituals, and other cultural bonds
Domestication
modify plants or animals from their original form to be more useful
The role of women in horticultural societies
had political and sociological consequences
Functions of religions
giving communities a shared code of behavior
giving a shared understanding of the world
giving deeper meanings beyond surface of events
effects of the ice age
-the invasion of open pasture by forest
-changes in climate were less extreme in middle east
-a shift from dependence on big game to the hunting of many smaller animals
-an increased consumption of wild vegetable foods
Basic economic units
nuclear and extended families