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almost all Beniretto midterm information


Artifacts which are strictly useful


Artifacts which show social class


Items associated with a site through natural preservation or insect remains


Things that cannot be taken back into the laboratory for analysis because they are actually part of the earth or because moving will alter or destroy them


Written or printed documents; paintings, murals


Things that have been modified by humans


The spread of products, ideas and people from one place to another
happens through migration, trade, and war

Why is movement important?

Because it can spread ideas and cultural characteristics from one place to another


Artifacts which show a relationship




An area or division of the world having definable characteristics both physical and cultural but not always fixed boundaries

Bias can be identified through four things:

1) the language used in the source
2) looking for missing information
3) finding information about the author or organization that sponsors the reports
4) agreeing completely with the source
How _____ can be identified

to make inferences, follow the steps: (4)

1) Select the main idea or literal interpretation
2) Look for clues that suggest additional meaning, such as key phrases or emotional words
3) Add the clues to the original interpretation
4) Create a revised meaning based on the connection between the stated idea and the implied idea
Needed to make ________

Geographic imagination

interprets the world around based on unique understandings, perceptions, knowledge, and is reflected in behavior toward others

Cultural Hybridity

results from movement and the interaction of various ideas, beliefs, and products

A frame of reference

explains, organizes experiences, and evaluates

The purpose of a frame of reference is to give basis for: (5)

beliefs, judgement, values, morals, ethics are the purpose of _____ __ ______?


is the spread of cultural traits by contact of one culture with another

History can be considered an interpretation because: (3)

1) knowledge of past is incomplete
2) not all sources survive
3) no one person can be an expert of every aspect of the past
These are the reasons why _____ __ _ _______

A. Physical Place

"Far off there were blue hills. Much nearer, something moved, changed shape, vanished as the wavering airdistorted the distance, and then was there again, steady for a moment, three long, slightly arching necks with small heads."
A. Physical Place
B. Region
C. Interaction
D. Movement
E. Location

D. Movement

"They went slowly, clinging to the unfamiliar shore, in almost constant alarm, each night having to find a new place to roost."
A. Physical Place
B. Region
C. Interaction
D. Movement
E. Location

E. Location

"At length Mr. Multan tapped the map three times with his forefinger, 'You have been digging outside the area for which you have your license.'"
A. Physical Place
B. Region
C. Interaction
D. Movement
E. Location

B. Region

"The child clung to the rock, letting the broken waves of the bay wash over her, cooling the fierce sunlight... the sea was her home."
A. Physical Place
B. Region
C. Interaction
D. Movement
E. Location

C. Interaction

"The tribe used the bay because there were caves in low cliffs, deep in two of which water trickled down the rock. But food inside the bay was scarce, so normally they would have hunted the rocky inlets beyond for shellfish and shrimp and crabs and the little octupi that hid under boulders"
A. Physical Place
B. Region
C. Interaction
D. Movement
E. Location

B. Selection

When discovering the marks on the scapula that Winnie found, her father tells Winnie not to show her sketch to anyone in hopes to avoid 'unsubstantiated theorizing'
A. Bias
B. Selection
C. Can't be proficient in every field
D. Presentation
E. Information is missing

C. Can't be proficient in every field

"You hear the minister saying I got to take over everything? Can't do that all by myself, you know, so I;m going to need help. Experts. Pros. How'd you feel about that?"
A. Bias
B. Selection
C. Can't be proficient in every field
D. Presentation
E. Information is missing

E. Information is missing

When explaining the sea-ape theory, Winnie tells about a large gap of information three and a half million years ago.
A. Bias
B. Selection
C. Can't be proficient in every field
D. Presentation
E. Information is missing

D. Presentation

When explaining what 'news' is, the man tells Winnie that she should tell the reporters that she, a school girl found and put together shells that were smashed with a primitive tool instead of the real story of a recovery of a few bones.
A. Bias
B. Selection
C. Can't be proficient in every field
D. Presentation
E. Information is missing

A. Bias

"You think this is a tin-pot country. You think you can can come here and take what you wish. You think you can take treasures out of our soil and we will not know what you are taking because we are savages."
A. Bias
B. Selection
C. Can't be proficient in every field
D. Presentation
E. Information is missing

For an explanation to be considered scientific, it must: (3)

1) Explain a maximum number of observations with minimum assumptions
2) be tested
3) be compatible with a well established body of theory
For an _______ to be considered _______, it must...

There can be exceptions to a rule because: (3)

1) observation can be affected by more than one principle
2) there can be errors in measurements
3) there can be differences in perception
There can be ______ to a ____ because...

Malthus's Theory

struggle for resources is inevitable, restraints on population growth is necessary, population rises faster than food supply, war and disease are good for curtailing population growth, let poor people die

Plutarch's Theory

Great men and their character
Great men change history-not necessarily "good"
Ex. Hitler, Voldemort

Toynbee's Theory

Challenge and Response
Faced with crisis, response determines survival

Darwin's Theory

Origin of Species
complex creatures evolve from simple creatures over time
Survival of the Fittest

Marx's Theory

Material Dialectic
Ruling class controls means of production
Conflict between classes

Turner's Theory

Geography and the frontier
Geography gives people advantages and disadvantages


"history is the history of winners"
winners write history books, losers are excluded


Change cannot be managed
No one can predict

Law of Superposition

Charles Lyell
Lower is Older

Three Age Theory

Christian Thomsen
Stone Age then Bronze Age then Iron Age

For a theory to be considered good, it must be...(3)



1) states events of the past must be explainable by processes that can be observed
2) is demonstrated by the process of erosion


Bottom Level of Funnel of Certainty


Second to bottom level on funnel of certainty

Probable Theory

Middle level on funnel of certainty


Second to top level on funnel of certainty


top level on funnel of certainty


Fixing a handle to a cutting edge

Foramen Magnum

opening in the skull through which the spinal cord passes


Flexible tissue found in the interior of bones


oldest known tools made by chipping stones


four-legged animal which feeds on plants


fold on the surface of the brain behind the browridge


a warm period between glacial epochs


chipping stone from both sides to produce a symmetrical I cutting edge

Blade and Burin Societies

groups that make tools in order to make tools


device for throwing a spear or dart

Frontal lobe

brain area responsible for making decisions, reasoning, problem solving, preparing for future


dust or soil carried by the wind


to move about on two feet


to shape (as flints) by breaking off pieces


a tiny blade tool: often set in a bone or a wooden haft


large cutting tools, primarily hand axes and cleavers

Reason for the development from ape to fully modern human

the mutually enriching interaction between mental and manual skill

Disadvantages of bipedalism (3)

1) walking on hind legs of body with body held vertical is complicated
2) it is difficult to balance
3) speed is decreased

Advantages of bipedalism (3)

1) it helps with infants
2) it helps with cooling of the body
3) food gathering facilitated

Sweating was important in human development because... (1)

it was a substitute for panting which could cause hyperventilation with long exertion

played a role in human development (3)

foods rich in protein
dexterity in manual skills
climate changes which changed the environment

which did not play a role in human development?

increase in number of predetors

increased cranium size resulted in:

offspring being born helpless

Conditions during the ice age included:

the polar regions increased in size
there was a world wide drought

Absolute Location

referring to the exact spot on the earth's surface as measured by latitude and longitude


members of one culture adopt features of another
OR: cultural modification of an individual, group, or people by adapting to or borrowing traits from another culture;
OR: a merging of cultures as a result of prolonged contact


pertaining to a deposit of sand, silt, or clay formed by flowing water


to heat and then cool usually for softening and making less brittle


a type of music in which two or more groups of voices or instruments alternate with eachother


-were the first dynamic innovators and almost surely the first artists
-first to make tools in order to make tools


-were the first to create fired ceramic figurines
-their cultural traditions were eventually centered in central and eastern Europe, particularly in the loess lands of the Moravian region and southern Russia, where they became great mammoth hunters
-dispersed leadership
-blade and burin technology


-they developed their art to an extraordinary height of feeling and execution. They were equally masters whether masters whether working on large scale or small, on engravings, reliefs, or in the round.
-it was they who painted the greatest masterpieces of monumental cave art
-climatic changes also enabled some to move northward with the reindeer and occupy new hunting grounds in Denmark and Northern Germany
-cut and stitched clothes
-invented atlatl
-used microliths and grinders


-a perfect example of the way of life intermediate between that of the hunters and the farmer
-they were hunter-gatherers, foraging for food such as emmer wheat, barley, and almonds and hunting gazelle, deer, cattle, horse, and wild boar. For at least part of the year, they lived in communities.
-Artifacts include grinding stones, used to process seeds, dried meats, and fish for planned meals, and ochre for likley ritual practices. Flint and bone tools, and dentalium shell ornaments are also part of the assemblage.
-first farmers-first to use wheat/grain


mainly herbivores
Southern ape
could not adapt to change in environment
taken over by more efficient herbivores

Homo Habilis

-bigger brains
-OMNIVORES-caused brain development, led to reciprocal relationships, increased geographical frontiers
-Oldowan tools
-Developed curiosity
-black teeth
-'skillful/handy man'
-Olduvai Gorge

Homo erectus/egaster

-Hairless bodies, long noses, and internal cooling systems so they could hunt
-Had very big brains, logic
-acheulean tools
-meaning 'upright man'
-DISCOVERED FIRE-caused leisure


-first burials
-rich, cultural life
-cared for elderly and crippled
-large, strong teeth
-broad flat noses used to warm air
-big lower jaw
-bun on back of skull
physically adapted to climate

Homo Sapien

-strong imaginations-frontal lobe
-spread throughout the world
-strong relationships
-opposable thumbs

B. Civilization separates man from nature

Gilgamesh and Enkidu travel to the forbidden cedar forest. They kill the protector, Humbaba, ignoring his pleas for life. They then steal the trees, make the tallest into a gate, and make a raft out of the rest.
A. The meaning of life
B. Civilization separates man from nature
C. Church vs. State
D. The Gods are dangerous
E. Personal immortality

D. The Gods are dangerous

Utnapishtim tells Gilgamesh the story of the flood where Ea warned him to make a boat and take all of the kinds of animals and his family with him. After the flood, the gods regretted what they had done.
A. The meaning of life
B. Civilization separates man from nature
C. Church vs. State
D. The Gods are dangerous
E. Personal immortality

C. Church vs. State

Ishtar professes her love to Gilgamesh. When Gilgamesh rejects her, she is angry and sends the Bull of Heaven down upon earth with seven years of famine. Gilgamesh and Enkidu wrestle the bull and kill it.
A. The meaning of life
B. Civilization separates man from nature
C. Church vs. State
D. The Gods are dangerous
E. Personal immortality

E. Personal immortality

Life is short, two warriors tell each other on their way to the deadly confrontation in the Cedar forest, and the only thing that lasts is fame.
A. The meaning of life
B. Civilization separates man from nature
C. Church vs. State
D. The Gods are dangerous
E. Personal immortality

A. The meaning of life

Gilgamesh, what you seek you will never find... Let your every day be full of joy, love the child that holds your hand, let your wife delight in your embrace, for these alone are the concerns of humanity.
A. The meaning of life
B. Civilization separates man from nature
C. Church vs. State
D. The Gods are dangerous
E. Personal immortality


A doctrine that the interests of the person are paramount

Homo Oeconomicus

Economic man whose relations are bound by secular law


Great sea of fresh water near ancient Eridu
Water god


Sumerian word for grasslands from which the word Eden comes


relating to, or involving a conflict within a group


an individualizing characteristic or quality


Pertaining to clay, silt deposited by running water


impregnate with salt
caused by over irrigating


a principle or belief held to be true


uninterrupted duration especially without essential change


Laws were humane: substituting compensation for punishment


spiritual capital of Assyria


final capital of Assyria


military capital of Assyria

Lex talionis

law of equal and direct retribution

Basic Tenets of the Modern West

possessive individualism, free market philosophy, and scientific utility

Imaginative Literature

Enduring legacy of Mesopatamia

Epic of Gilgamesh

first epic poem recorded

Key arts of civilization

creation of organized communities, the arrival of the temple, the city, and kingship

the site of the ancient shrines

The cities of ancient Sumer emerged on...

Two most ancient confrontations in human history

nomad vs. sedentary farmer
hill people vs. people of the plains

Written law assumes...

an independent character beyond the authority that administers it

Where did kinship (political society) first come to earth?

the mound of creation that was the first land that rose from primeval waters

Common markers of material civilization

bronze technology
great ceremonial buildings
monumental art

Material markers hide:

The ultimate goals of civilization

The ultimate goals of organized human life on earth includes (4)___ ends.

moral, intellectual, political, spiritual

Factors that brought about the fall of Mesopotamian civilization include:

internecine warfare, gloomy prophesies I, increased salinization, and inflation

Hittite Religion

the gods grew out of environment and local deities
mountains were considered sacred
principal deity was female
religion and ritual were to placate and appease gods

Hittite warfare

depended on a combo of military force and diplomatic ties with buffer states
used the army's infantry and chariots
had cities built as fortifications meant to be part of the offense of the country
proved righteousness of the cause by victory in battle


_______ prevents retribution for wrongs to escalate into a cycle of mutual revenge


Exact revenge is the basic cultural mechanism for dealing with unacceptable behavior. This is _______


King _______ forced a large part of the Jewish population to relocate, largely upper class people and craftspeople; this deportation marks the beginning of the Exile in Jewish history.


First king to establish an empire-Akkadian


Centralization of the monarchy was the greatest innovation of...

Legimation of Authority

In order for any government to perform effectively, then, those in power must convince everyone else that they have...

Law written and administered retribution and conflict resolution


at first justified the monarch's authority based on some sort of divine selection, but later began to assert that the monarch himself was divine and worthy of worship


_____ law assumes an independent character beyond the centralized authority that administers it


first to establish social classes/give consequences for crimes on a sliding scale based on social class
they had a federal state ruled by a king whose power was controlled by a council of nobles.
Queen reigned almost co-equal and retained status at death of king


their army was the largest standing army ever seen in the middle east or mediterranean


cultivating crops for harvesting in a sedentary lifestyle


tilling the soil, producing large amounts of crops, and raising livestock


the response of an individual, group, or species to its environment


stage of cultural development marked by writing and keeping written records


process by which an individual learns the traditional content of a culture and assimilates its practices and values

cultural template

body of learned behaviors common to a given human society, acts as a template


anything considered to be true, right, and important


state which shares a common identity based on language, ideals, shared rituals, and other cultural bonds


modify plants or animals from their original form to be more useful

The role of women in horticultural societies

had political and sociological consequences

Functions of religions

giving communities a shared code of behavior
giving a shared understanding of the world
giving deeper meanings beyond surface of events

effects of the ice age

-the invasion of open pasture by forest
-changes in climate were less extreme in middle east
-a shift from dependence on big game to the hunting of many smaller animals
-an increased consumption of wild vegetable foods

Basic economic units

nuclear and extended families

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