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humans are basically good, innate drive towards psychological health and growth, individuals are unique, free to make their own choices, whole person should be studied, more optimistic
humanistic- studied healthy, creative people, found commonalities (self-actualized); hierarchy of needs
Hierarchy of needs
biological: physiological needs (food, water, shelter), safety and security; psychological: love and belonging, self esteem; self actualized
humanistic-believed people were basically good and all have the potential for self-actualized (but can be affected by environment); growth promoting climate, self-concept
growth promoting climate
environment with genuineness, acceptance, and empathy, provided by one's family, and leads to a positive self-concept
our readiness to perceive ourselves favorably (accept more responsibility for good deeds than bad, see ourselves as better than average)
making up excuses for failures but do so beforehand (ex. the test is going to be really hard and I will fail anyways so I won't both studying)
one's feelings of high or low worth (higher correlated with happiness, fewer ulcers, more independent; lower correlated with depression and anxiety)
assessing humanistic perspective
measure self-concept (perceived self vs. ideal self), interviews and conversations
focus on the present more than the past, conscious not unconscious thoughts, taking responsibility for one's actions, promoting growth NOT curing an illness
Carl Rogers-active listening with a genuine, accepting, and empathetic environment to help client's growth (paraphrase, invite clarification, reflect feelings)
Fritz and Laura Perls- focus on whole person, present self awareness, balance in life, communication and contact with others, taking responsibility for one's actions (forgive and confront piece, chair exercise, non-verbal piece)
8-10 people, mixed or homogenous, share strategies, offer support, and empathy towards one another, easier to relate to people like yourself, and sometimes easier to be genuine in a group
criticisms of humanistic perspective
too optimistic (failure to see human capacity for evil), Maslow only studied self-actualized people, all concepts are vague/subjective, and promotes idea of acting on one's feelings (self-indulgence)
strengths of humanistic perspective
stresses the uniqueness of the individual, have control of one's happiness and destiny, self concept leads to happiness and success
social cognitive perspective
Ellis and Bandura-views behavior as influenced by the interactions with persons and their thinking (social context)...our feelings and responses to events are strongly influenced by our thought process, we all have irrational thoughts which affect out behavior, and our cognition, behavior, and environment interact/affect one another
social cognitive-focuses of effect of irrational thinking and how to change irrational thoughts, said we tend to care too much about other people's thoughts and causes distress (role of cognition, rational emotive behavior therapy)
interacting influences between personality and environmental factors (different people chose different environments, personalities shape how we interpret and react to events, and personalities help create situations to which we react)
role of cognition
ABC Complex-based on the idea that our irrational/rational thoughts intervene between activating events and out emotional reactions/consequences (ex. fail test, "I'm stupid", feeling depressed)
internal locus of control
belief that one controls one's own fate (tend to be less depressed, more happy, and more successful)
hopelessness and passive resignation that one learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events (ex. study hard for tests, fail, decide not to try because fail anyways)
assessing social cognitive perspective
consistency in behavior across situations, how behavior changes in different situations, predicting future behavior from past behavior, and measures of locus of control
criticisms of social cognitive perspective
fails to appreciate person's inner thoughts because focuses so much on the situations, ignores the importance of unconscious dynamics, emotions and biologically influenced traits
strengths of social cognitive perspective
sensitizes researchers to how situations affect (and our affected by) individuals, builds from research of learning and cognition
overestimate other's noticing and evaluating of our appearance, performance, and blunders (spotlight on us)
cognitive therapy for depression
Aaron Beck-teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting (based on the idea that our thoughts intervene between events and out emotional reactions)
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