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humanistic perspective

humans are basically good, innate drive towards psychological health and growth, individuals are unique, free to make their own choices, whole person should be studied, more optimistic

Abraham Maslow

humanistic- studied healthy, creative people, found commonalities (self-actualized); hierarchy of needs

Hierarchy of needs

biological: physiological needs (food, water, shelter), safety and security; psychological: love and belonging, self esteem; self actualized

Carl Rogers

humanistic-believed people were basically good and all have the potential for self-actualized (but can be affected by environment); growth promoting climate, self-concept

growth promoting climate

environment with genuineness, acceptance, and empathy, provided by one's family, and leads to a positive self-concept

self concept

degree to which people are satisfied with their life

self-serving bias

our readiness to perceive ourselves favorably (accept more responsibility for good deeds than bad, see ourselves as better than average)


making up excuses for failures but do so beforehand (ex. the test is going to be really hard and I will fail anyways so I won't both studying)


one's feelings of high or low worth (higher correlated with happiness, fewer ulcers, more independent; lower correlated with depression and anxiety)

assessing humanistic perspective

measure self-concept (perceived self vs. ideal self), interviews and conversations

humanistic therapies

focus on the present more than the past, conscious not unconscious thoughts, taking responsibility for one's actions, promoting growth NOT curing an illness

client-centered therapy

Carl Rogers-active listening with a genuine, accepting, and empathetic environment to help client's growth (paraphrase, invite clarification, reflect feelings)

Gestalt therapy

Fritz and Laura Perls- focus on whole person, present self awareness, balance in life, communication and contact with others, taking responsibility for one's actions (forgive and confront piece, chair exercise, non-verbal piece)

group therapy

8-10 people, mixed or homogenous, share strategies, offer support, and empathy towards one another, easier to relate to people like yourself, and sometimes easier to be genuine in a group

criticisms of humanistic perspective

too optimistic (failure to see human capacity for evil), Maslow only studied self-actualized people, all concepts are vague/subjective, and promotes idea of acting on one's feelings (self-indulgence)

strengths of humanistic perspective

stresses the uniqueness of the individual, have control of one's happiness and destiny, self concept leads to happiness and success

unconditioned positive regard

Malsow-an attitude of total acceptance of one another

social cognitive perspective

Ellis and Bandura-views behavior as influenced by the interactions with persons and their thinking (social context)...our feelings and responses to events are strongly influenced by our thought process, we all have irrational thoughts which affect out behavior, and our cognition, behavior, and environment interact/affect one another

Albert Ellis

social cognitive-focuses of effect of irrational thinking and how to change irrational thoughts, said we tend to care too much about other people's thoughts and causes distress (role of cognition, rational emotive behavior therapy)

reciprocal determinism

interacting influences between personality and environmental factors (different people chose different environments, personalities shape how we interpret and react to events, and personalities help create situations to which we react)

role of cognition

ABC Complex-based on the idea that our irrational/rational thoughts intervene between activating events and out emotional reactions/consequences (ex. fail test, "I'm stupid", feeling depressed)

personal control

our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless

external locus of control

belief that outside forces beyond one's control determine one's fate

internal locus of control

belief that one controls one's own fate (tend to be less depressed, more happy, and more successful)

learned helplessness

hopelessness and passive resignation that one learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events (ex. study hard for tests, fail, decide not to try because fail anyways)

assessing social cognitive perspective

consistency in behavior across situations, how behavior changes in different situations, predicting future behavior from past behavior, and measures of locus of control

criticisms of social cognitive perspective

fails to appreciate person's inner thoughts because focuses so much on the situations, ignores the importance of unconscious dynamics, emotions and biologically influenced traits

strengths of social cognitive perspective

sensitizes researchers to how situations affect (and our affected by) individuals, builds from research of learning and cognition

spotlight effect

overestimate other's noticing and evaluating of our appearance, performance, and blunders (spotlight on us)

cognitive therapy for depression

Aaron Beck-teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting (based on the idea that our thoughts intervene between events and out emotional reactions)

rational emotive behavior therapy

Ellis-focuses on resolving emotional and behavioral problems and disturbances and enabling people to lead happier and more fulfilling lives

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