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History Exam (2)
Terms in this set (35)
What was the major breakthrough in power production that helped begin the Industrial Revolution?
Romanticism reflected deep interest both in nature and in the thoughts and feelings of the individual. They turned from reason to emotion, from society to nature, and rejected the rigidly ordered world. Emotion was a key element of romanticism. Poetry, music, and painting were very important. Every day life was ignored in art.
Describe the Romantic school of art and literature. What was emphasized? What was ignored?
What principle guided the diplomats at the Congress of Vienna?
Stability of laws and balance of power
What =ism would be most likely to support a monarchy in the 19th century?
What country was the leading country throughout the Industrial Revolution?
This was a group of workers who attacked whole factories in northern England beginning in 1811, destroying labor saving machinery. Outside the factories, mobs of workers rioted, mainly because of poor living and working conditions.
Poor working conditions and to destroy machinery that took the place of their job, putting them out of work.
Why did Luddites destroy machinery and riot?
Write poetry or music and make art
What type of actions might a romantic be inspired to take?
Nationalism fired the romantic imagination
How were romanticism and nationalism linked?
This was the idea that people of a single nationality should unite under one single government.
Belgium, Italy, Russia, Prague. Conservatives regained their nerve and their power.
What counties had revolts in 1830 and/or 1848? Which were successful?
Build nation states, unify people
What effects might nationalism have on a country?
Which ideological group controlled the governments of most of Europe in 1849 after the revolutions of 1848?
Czar Alexander II
Freed 20 million serfs (slaves); however, they were still tied to the land by debt even though they were legally free.
Who issued the edict of emancipation in Russia? What did it do?
Weak countries around France were made stronger, diminished Frances power, and the ruling families of Europe were returned to their thrones
What were the major accomplishments of the Congress of Vienna? Who was responsible for them?
Russia, Prussia, and Austria agreed to base their ideas on Christian Principles to combat revolution
What was the Holy Alliance? Which countries were involved?
Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, France
Which countries were "great powers" after the napoleonic wars?
The former Austrian Netherlands and Dutch Republic were united to form the Kingdom of the Netherlands, a group of 39 German states were loosely joined as the newly created German Confederation, dominated by Austria, Switzerland was recognized as an independent nation, and the Kingdom of Sardina in Italy was strengthened by the addition of Genoa.
What was the series of alliances devised by Metternich to maintain the balance of power, and to help out in case of revolutions?
This was the greatly increased output of machine made goods that began in England in the Mid-1700s.
After buying up the land of village farmers, wealthy landowners enclosed their land with fences or hedges. The increase in their landholdings enabled them to cultivate larger fields. Within these larger fields, called what, landowners experimented with more productive seeding and harvesting methods to boost crop yields.
Large landowners forced small farmers to become tenant farmers or to give up farming and move to the cities.
How did the Agricultural Revolution make it possible for the Industrial Revolution to begin?
People earned higher wages, had a higher standard of living, more people lived in cities, and the middle class emerged.
How did life change for people during the early industrial revolution?
Free economies: economic liberty guaranteed economic progress
What ideas are contained in the "Wealth of Nations" by Adam Smith?
Land, labor, and capital (wealth)
What are the 3 factors of production?
This is city building and the movement of people to cities. The main reason for this is the growth of the factory system, where the manufacturing of goods was concentrated in a central location.
This is a group of workers who join together in voluntary labor association that spoke for all of the workers in a particular trade.
Who practiced collective bargaining?
Sell products to the rest of the country
What purpose did the railroad serve during the Industrial Revoution? (It still serves this purpose)
This is negotiation between workers and their employers. This bargained for better working conditions and higher pay. If factory owners refused these demands, union members could strike, or refuse to work.
This is the idea that people should judge ideas, institutions, and actions on the basis of their utility, or usefulness. A government should try to promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people. In general, the individual should be free to pursue his or her own advantage without interference from the state.
Marx and Engels
Who were the main founders of communism?
Raise standard of living, create middle class
What impact did the Industrial Revolution have on global equality?
Raise standard of living, democratic participation
What were the positive benefits of industrialization?
Since Britain blockaded the US, trying to keep it from engaging in international trade, the US had to use it's own recourses to develop independent industries.
How did the War of 1812 impact industry in the US?
These halted trade, interrupted communication, and caused inflation in some parts of the continent. The gap widened between European countries and Britain.
How was the Industrial Revolution impacted by the France Revolution and Napoleonic Wars in Continental Europe?
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