73 terms

Chapter 1,17,18,19

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states of matter
The physical forms of matter, which include solid, liquid, and gas
solid
state of matter in which the volume and shape of the substance are fixed
crystalline
have very orderly 3 dimensional arrangement of particles
amorphous
are made of particles that do not have a special arrangement
liquid
state of matter that has a definite volume, but not a definite shape
surface tension
the force that acts on the surface of a liquid and that tends to minimize the area of the surface
viscosity
the resistance of a gas or liquid to flow
gas
A state of matter with no definite shape or volume
temperature
measure of how hot or cold something is; specifically a measure of the movement of particles
volume
a measure of the size of a body or region in three-dimensional space
pressure
the amount of force exerted per unit area of a surface
Boyle's law
law that states that the volume of a gas is inversly proportional to the pressure of a gas when the temperature is constant
Charles Law
the law that states that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, the volume of the gas increases as the temperature of the gas increases and the volume of the gas decreases as the temperature of the gas decreases
change of state
the change of a substance from one physical state to another
melting
the change of state in which a solid becomes a liquid by adding energy
freezing point
the temperature below which a liquid turns into a solid
evaporation
the change of a substance from a liquid to a gas
boiling
the conversion of a liquid to a vapor when the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the atmospheric pressure
vapor pressure
the pressure caused by the collisions of this vapor and the walls of the container
boiling point
the temperature at which a liquid boils at sea level
condensation
change of state from a gas to a liquid
sublimation
the process in which a solid changes directly into a gas
Science
knowledge obtained by observing natural events and conditions in order to discover facts and formulate laws or principles that can be tested
Types of Scientists
Zoologist, Geochemist, Mechanic, Oceanographer, Volcanologist
Zoologist
A person who studies live animals.
Geochemist
A person who specializes in the study of rocks, minerals, and soil.
Mechanic
They work on everything from cars to space shuttles, they use science to solve problems and they try to find ways to improve machines.
Oceanographer
A person who studies the ocean. Some study the waves and ocean and others study plants and animals that live in the ocean
Volcanologist
A person who studies volcanoes
Scientific Methods
a series of problem steps followed to solve problems: Make Observations, Form Hypothesis, Make Predictions, Test the Hypothesis, Collect Data, Analyze the results, and draw conclusions
hypothesis
an explanation that is based on prior scientific research or observations and that can be tested
controlled experiment
an experiment that tests only one factor at a time by using a comparison of a control group with an experimental group
variable
a factor that changes in an experiment in order to test a hypothesis
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
dependent variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
model
a pattern, plan, representation or description designed to show the structure or workings of an object, system, or concept three major types of models are: physical, mathematical and conceptual
physical models
models that are made of materials and that can be touched and measured; engineers construct scale physical models to test a structure before building it.
mathematical model
can be made up if numbers, equations, and other forms of data
Conceptual models
a written description of diagram based on ideas and observations that are used to describe how a process or object works; Sir Isaac Newton's law of universal gravitation
theory
an explanation that ties together many hypothesis and observations
law
a summary of many experimental results and observations; a law tells how things work
Tools for Measuring
Graduated cylinder, thermometer, meterstick, balance, spring scale
meter
a basic unit of length in the SI
Area
a measure of the size of a surface or region
mass
a measure of the amount of matter in an object
volume
a measure of the size of a body or region in a three- dimensional space
density
the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance
matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
volume
a measure of the size of a body or region in three- dimensional space
meniscus
the curve at a liquid's surface by which one measures the volume of the liquid
mass
a measure of the amount of matter in an object
weight
a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object; its value can change with the location of teh object in the universe
inertia
the tendency of an object to resist being moved or, of the object is moving, to resist change in speed or direction until the outside force acts on the object
physical property
A characteristic of a substance that does not involve a chemical change, such as density, color, or hardness.
physical change
a change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties
chemical property
A property of matter that describes a substance's ability to participate in chemical reactions.
chemical change
a change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties
element
a pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical or physical means
pure substances
a sample of matter; either a single element or a single compound, that has defiant chemical and physical properties
metal
an element that is shiny and that is shiny and that conducts heat and electricity well
nonmetal
an element that conducts heat and electricity poorly
metalloid
an element that has properties of both metals and nonmetals
compound
a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
mixture
a combination of two or more substance that are not chemically combined
solution
in a solution the substance that dissolves in the solvent
solvent
in a solution the substance in which the solute dissolves
soluble
able to dissolve
insoluble
unable to dissolve
concentration
the amount of a particular substance in a given quantity of a mixture, solution, or ore
solubility
the ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a given temperature and pressure
suspension
a mixture in which particles of a material are more or less evenly dispersed throughout a liquid or gas
colloid
a mixture consisting of tiny particles that are intermediate in size between those in solutions and those in suspensions and that are suspended in a liquid, solid, or gas
Alloys
are solid solutions of metals or nonmetals dissolved in metals