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105 terms

25 SCWS Military Tactics/Warfare Mission

Common Corp and NMCB Specific current as of 2011
STUDY
PLAY
State the NMCB Mission
Responsive military construction support
1)horizontal and vertical construction while defending
2)Deploying an Air Det in 48 hours
3) conducting active defensive operations
4)Perform intermediate maintenance on organic and assigned equipment.
Define ROC
Required Operational Capability
Defin POE
Projected operational environment
Define MOB
Mobilization process, assembly, organization and application of the nations resources.
Discuss the role of an NMCB in support of amphibious operations
Cronstruct LZ's, FARP's, EPW holding facilities, casualty evacuation stations, construct and maintain beach roads.
Vision of the Seabees
We are the Seabees. We build and we fight. We are a professional team who provide quality construction and repair services
Combat ready construction force of choice in joint ops.
Continually improve our capabilities
Deliver quality, timely, cost-effective Engineer services.
Integral member of the Navy and Marine Corps Team.
Mission of the Seabees
With Compassion for others - we build; we fight - for peace with freedom. We provide the Navy, Marine Corps,Unified CINCs, and other customers with rapid contingency response, quality construction, disaster recovery support,and humanitarian assistance. We accomplish this through expeditionary units which are rapidly deployable, interoperable, self-sustaining, and capable of conducting defensive military operations
JOPES
Joint Operation Planning and Execution System
Discuss the battalion C2 within the MAGTF
NCD maintains ADCON, OPCON to the MAGTF, allowing the MAGTF to accomplish missions or tasks, deploy Seabee units, Retain or assign tactical control.
Discuss the batttalion C2 during joint operations.
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Describe the construction and the elements of a Hasty/skirmisher's position
Shallow pit that provides limited protection while firing from the prone position
Made quickly by scraping soil to build a shallow ridge, or parapet, between the rifleman and the enemy
Trench is body-length
Describe the construction and the elements of an improved one man fighting position
Made as small as possible to present smallest target to the enemy
Constructed with a water sump, firing step, grenade sump and parapet
Built as wide as the occupants shoulders, and as tall as the occupant standing on the firing step
Provides protection form tanks passing over
Describe the construction and the elements of an improved two man fighting position
Essentially two, one-person positions
Close proximity to buddy provides security
Allows one to rest while others sleeps
Since the position is longer than a one-person position, it provides less protection from tanks, bombing, strafing and shelling.
Explain the general rules of camouflage
o Take advantage of all available natural concealment
o Camouflage by altering the form, shadow, texture, and color of objects
o Camouflage against both ground and air observations
o Camouflage in constant and continuous
Explain the general rules of camouflage and how they apply to Fighting positions
o Before beginning construction, not the terrain and vegetation. The goal is to camouflage the position to this same appearance.
o Obtain material from a wide area
o Do not use more material than needed
o Cover excavated soil with vegetation or dump in streams, ravines or under brush
o Inspect the position form the enemy's viewpoint
o Vary your route to avoid making paths to the position
Explain the general rules of camouflage and how they apply to Personal equipment
Field uniforms and equipment are colored to blend in with terrain. Faded or shiny items need to be surveyed or darkened with paint.
When op paint is not available, use mud, charcoal, or crushed grass.
Alter the outline of your helmet with a cloth cover or foliage
Explain the general rules of camouflage and how they apply to the Individual
All exposed skin, even dark skin, reflects light.
Apply face paint sticks whenever possible, using the following combinations:
- Loam & light green for light skin personnel in other than snow regions
- Sand & dark green for dark skinned personnel in other than snow regions
- Loam & white for all personnel in snow regions
Describe applying camouflage paints
Paint shiny areas (forehead, cheeks, nose, chin, hands, wrists, neck) with the darker color
Paint shadow areas (around eyes, under nose and chin) with the lighter color.
Use the buddy system to check application
When paint is not available, use burnt cork, charcoal or lampblack
Explain the general rules of camouflage and how they apply to vehicles
If possible, park under natural cover
Park so the vehicle shape will disappear into natural surroundings
When cut foliage is used ensure it is placed as it grows. The undersides of leaves are lighter than the top.
Replace as soon as it begins to wither
Explain the general rules of camouflage and how they apply to Drape nets/Camouflage Nets
Easily assemble and provide adequate concealment against direct observation
Can be detected by photographic observation because the artificial camouflage does not blend in with the background completely.
Explain the general rules of camouflage and how they apply to Buildings
Vary rooflines with wooden framework, then cover with burlap or fine-mesh netting
Erect superstructures over new building to make it resemble surrounding native buildings
For existing structures
- Cover with screens of garnished netting
- Paint disruptive patterns over netting, roof, and gable-end walls
- When the slope of a roof is greater than 30 degrees, netting must cover the whole building.
- Paint roofs to match surrounding terrain
Explain the general rules of camouflage and how they apply to Supply points
Pick spots with good natural overhead cover. Minimize changes to the appearance of the terrain.
Avoid large concentrations of material so Unload and disperse supplies as quickly as possible
Supply point access roads
- Access roads and tracks running in and out of the point can be concealed by slinging netting between trees.
- Control traffic to avoid large convoys
- Control debris, such as empty boxes, so it does not accumulate and give the position away.
Explain the general rules of camouflage and how they apply to Water points
Must camouflage storage tanks, pumps, purification equipment, and personnel
Place burlap covers or foliage over shiny surfaces.
Conceal open areas where vehicles or personnel will have to traverse to get to a water point
Institute a water supply schedule to avoid a concentration of waiting vehicles or personnel
Difference between cover and concealment
Cover
- Protection from enemy fire
- A hill is natural cover
- A parapet is artificial cover
Concealment
- Protection from observation
- Bushes, grass, and shadows are natural concealment
- Burlap, tents, or nets are artificial concealment
State what action should be taken if you are caught in the light of a ground or overhead flare
Overhead flares
- When an overhead flare goes off, immediately seek cover as low as possible and do not move until the light burns out
Ground flares
- Move quickly and quietly out of the light
Discuss the military aspects of terrain as it applies to a defensive force.
Various combinations of weather and topography give certain qualities to an area. These qualities known as the Military Aspects of Terrain
Physical reconnaissance is most reliable, but additional resources include:
Arial reconnaissance and photographs
Maps of the area
Terrain models provided by higher authority
Intelligence reports
Patrolling
Friendly natives, undercover agents, or captured prisoners
KOCOA
Key Terrain
Observation and Fields of Fire
Cover and concealment
Obstacles
Avenues of approach
Explain the procedures for basic land navigation using a map and lensatic compass
• With a Compass Rose (picture of compass card)
o Place map on a flat surface
o Place an open Lensatic compass on the map's compass rose with the sighting wire lying directly over the map's magnetic north line.
o Turn the map and compass together until the north arrow of the compass is aligned with the index line of the compass
o The map is now orientated
State the five basic colors used and how they applied to a military map
• Black: Man-made features and cultural areas
• Blue: water features such as lakes and rivers
• Green: vegetation
• Red-Brown: all relief features such as contour lines
• Red: main roads, built up areas and special features, enemy positions
Describe the grid system on all military maps
o Grids are two sets of equally spaced, parallel, straight lines intersecting at right angles, forming a series of squares
o Read the coordinates RIGHT and UP and add them after the respective set of principle digits
Accuracy of a 4 digit grid
1 KM
Accuracy of a 6 digit grid
100 m
Accuracy of an 8 digit grid
10 m
Accuracy of a 10 digit grid
1 m
First two digits of Military Grid Reference System
grid-zone designation 6 degrees wide and 8 degrees high
Digit followed by a uppercase letter.
Second 2 digits of a Military Grid Reference System
100,000-meter square identification
2 Letters that show the 100 km area within the grid-zone designation
Explain resection and intersection
• Resection: Locating the unknown position of the user by sighting on two or three known features
• Intersection Locating an unknown point by successively occupying at least two, but preferably three, known positions and sighting on the unknown point
How many degrees and mils are on a compass
360 degrees
6400 mils
How many degrees is each click of the bezel ring
3 degrees
53 1/3 mils
Define BAMCIS
• Begin planning
• Arrange for reconnaissance and coordination
• Make the reconnaissance
• Complete the plan
• Issue the Patrol Order
• Supervise preparations
What actions are completed in "Begin the planning"
Plan use of time
Begin analyzing the mission.
Formulate a preliminary plan
Issue the Patrol Warning Order
What actions are completed in "Arrange for reconnaissance and coordination"
Arrange for where, when, and how unit will be moved
Prepare a schedule for reconnaissance as time and situation permit
After the platoon commander's briefing, make arrangements to coordinate with adjacent unit leaders, leaders of supporting units, and other unit leaders as necessary.
What actions are completed in "Make the reconnaissance"
Continue the estimate of the situation
Complete terrain analysis, to include KOCOA
Note the effects of the terrain on the preliminary plan
Reject, adopt, and alter the plans as necessary
What actions are completed in "Complete the plan"
Review the preliminary plan
Prepare notes to use when issuing the order
Use the following to make final decisions:
a. Routes of approach
b. Location and strength of available squad security
c. Where the enemy will be located
d. Method of attack
What actions are completed in "Issue the Patrol Order"
Brief the subordinate leaders on the terrain
2. Issue the order, to include:
a. Description of the situation
1. enemy forces
2. location and mission of friendly forces
3. unit attachments and detachments
b. Brief statement of the mission
c. Execution of the mission
d. Instructions and information pertaining to administration and logistics
e. Commands and signals
What actions are completed in "Supervise preparations"
Coordinate and issue guiding instructions to ensure that the mission is accomplished correctly and on time.
Review rehearsals.
Define a SALUTE report
o Size of the enemy unit
o Activity of the enemy
o Location of the enemy unit
o Uniform worn by the enemy
o Time of each activity noted
o Equipment used or carried by the enemy
Define a SPOT report
Detailed report of an enemy engagement
Always follow a SALUTE up with a SPOT report after engagement has ended
Report includes
All information contained in a SALUTE
Friendly and enemy KIA or WIA
POW's and enemy equipment
Difference between a Security and Reconnaissance patrol
Security Patrols
o Provide physical security
Reconnaissance patrols
o Defensive technique used to
Detect enemy movement toward the unit's position
Locate or observe an enemy position
Discover enemy avenues of approach
What are the three types of reconnaissance patrols
Route, Area, and Zone
Describe a route patrol
a directed effort to obtain detailed information of a specified route and all terrain from which the enemy could influence movement along that route.
Describe a Area patrol
a directed effort to obtain detailed information concerning the terrain or enemy activity within a prescribed area such as a town, ridge line, woods, or other features critical to operations
Describe a zone patrol
a directed effort to obtain detailed information concerning all routes, obstacles, terrain, and enemy forces within a zone defined by boundaries.
What is a combat patrol
missions that usually include engaging the enemy. They are fighting patrols. Combat patrols are employed in both the offensive and defensive combat operations
What are the types of combat patrols
Raid, Contact, Ambush, Security, and Urban
State the twelve patrol planning and preparations steps
1) Study the mission, 2)Plan use of time
3) Study the terrain and situation, 4) Organize the patrol
5) Select personnel, weapons, and equipment
6) Issue the warning order, 7) Coordinate,
8) Make reconnaissance, 9) Complete detailed plans,
10) Issue patrol order, 11) Supervise, inspect, rehearse, and re-inspect,12) Execute the mission
What are the three echelons of a defense
Security Area
o Area in front of FDA
o Security patrols roam this area
o Listening/observation posts are placed here
Forward Defense Area (FDA)
o Area where frontline defensive positions are dug
Reserve Area
o Area behind FDA that reserve forces occupy
What are the 6 elements for a call for indirect fire
• Observer identification
• Target location
• Method of engagement
• Warning order
• Target description
• Method of fire and control
What are the Fire commands for direct weapons
ADDRAC
• Alert- alert the unit that a command is coming
• Direction- indicate the target's location
• Description- Give a very brief description of the target
• Range- To the target to be engaged
• Assignment- Tell who is to fire on the target
• Control- (fire control) give the signal to open fire
What are the three types of missions when you call for fire?
Polar, Grid, and Shift.
Grid is used for a 6- or 8-digit coordinate (an 8-digit grid preferred).
Polar is used for observer to target direction, distance, and up/down vertical shift (if greater than 30 meters).
Shift used for observer to target direction, left/right lateral shift, add/drop range shift, and up/down vertical shift (if greater than 30 meters).
Describe a 9 line Close air support brief
Begin point, Heading, Distance
Target elevation, target description, Target location
Marking type, location of friendlies, Egress
Name the 3 combat positions on a fire plan sketch
-Primary firing position
Backbone of the defense, receives the full force of the enemy's attack
-Alternate firing position
Fall back position
Should have the same sector of fire as primary
-Supplementary firing position
Sector of fire covers the flank or rear
6 S's - T regarding POW's
Search: for weapons and documents
Secure: ensure escape is impossible
Silence: do not allow EPW's to talk to each other
Segregate: into groups by rank, gender, and status
Speed: timely deliver of information obtained from EPW's
Safeguard: protect EPW's from harm
Tag
Describe Fire Discipline
The ability to select and designate targets.
Preserve element of surprise by opening fire at the desired moment only
Regulate the rate of fire
Shift from one target to another
Adjust and cease-fire
THREATCON ALPHA
This condition applies when there is a general threat of possible terrorist activity against personnel and facilities. The nature and extent of which are unpredictable, and circumstances do not justify full implementation of THREATCON BRAVO
THREATCON BRAVO
This condition applies when an increased and more predictable threat of terrorist activity exists. The measures in this THREATCON must be capable of being maintained for weeks without causing undue hardship, affecting operational capability, and aggravating relations with local authorities.
THREATCON CHARLIE
This condition applies when an incident occurs or intelligence is received indicating some form of terrorist action against personnel facilities and is imminent. Implementation of measures in this THREATCON for more than a short period probably will create hardship and affect the peacetime activities of the unit and its personnel.
THREATCON DELTA
This condition applies in the immediate area where a terrorist attack has occurred or when intelligence has been received that terrorist action against a specific location or person is likely.
Describe circumstances when deadly force would normally be authorized
Deadly force is only used as a last resort
Authorized under the following conditions:
o Self defense or defense of others when lesser means will not work
o Defense of property vital to national security
o Defense of property dangerous to others (weapons, ammunition, etc)
o To prevent the escape of a prisoner likely to cause death or serious bodily injury to another
Discuss who defines rules of engagement
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff defines rules of engagement
During military attacks against the US and
During ALL military operations, contingencies, and terrorist attacks occurring outside US territory
Not to be confused with Rules for Use of Force (peacetime operations within US territory)
Everyone is responsible for enforcing ROE.
Describe the three classes of wire entanglement
-Tactical wire
Used to hamper enemy aggression
Placed along the front of the defensive line
-Protective wire
Prevents close surprise attacks
around each fighting position at grenade range (-50 meters)
- Supplementary wire
Placed to conceal the exact line of tactical wire
Describe Triple strand concertina fence
o Consists of two lines of concertina serving as the base, with a third resting on top
o On average, a platoon can place 984 foot section in an hour
Describe Double Apron fence
4 and 2 pace fence, which is more common and more effective, and 6 and 3 pace fence
A 984 foot section usually requires 1 ½ hours for a platoon to complete
Describe Low wire entanglement
o A 4 and 2 pace double apron fence constructed with medium pickets instead of long pickets in the fence center line
o Used when concealment of the barrier is essential
Describe tangle foot
Used to slow enemy movement
Discuss SURVIVAL when isolated in an enemy area
Size up the situation
Undue haste makes waste
Remember where you are
Vanquish fear and panic
Improvise
Value living
Act like the natives
Learn the basic skills
Discuss Evasion when isolated in an enemy area
Know the enemy's location!
Look for signs of group movement,
Look for workers in the field, indicates no immediate threat
Absence of children in a village, possible pending action
Absence of young men in a village
Be patient, cautious, and avoid overconfidence
Conserve strength by avoiding exhaustion
Retain items of identification such as dog tags.
Use firearms only in an emergency
Avoid people as long as possible
Discuss Column fire team formations
Used when speed and control are governing factors
Favorable for fire and maneuver to either flank
Vulnerable to fire from the front because it's own fire in that direction is limited.
Discuss Wedge fire team formations
Used when the enemy contact is possible, but not certain
Provides all around protection, flexibility and is easy to control
Discuss Skirmishers fire team formations
Used when assaulting a known enemy position
Because the fire teams are in line, it provides maximum fire power to the front
Hard formation to control
Discuss Echelon fire team formations
Used primarily to protect an exposed flank
Permits heavy firepower to the front and the direction of the echelon
Hard formation to control and slow moving
Discuss the fundamentals of a successful ambush.
Surprise attack from a concealed position upon a moving or temporarily halted target.
Success of an ambush is contingent upon:
o Early warning of target approach
o Holding fire until target is in the kill zone
o Open fire at proper time
o Lifting or shifting supporting fires
o Initiation of the correct action if the ambush is compromised
o Timely and orderly withdrawal from ambush site
Discuss immediate actions during enemy contact in a convoy.
• Drivers attempt to drive through the killing zone.
• Personnel return fire immediately.
• When vehicles are clear of the killing zone, they are halted. Occupants dismount and take immediate offensive action against the enemy positions.
• Subsequent vehicles approaching the killing zone halt short of the zone. Occupants debark and take immediate offensive action against the enemy positions.
Describe immediate actions of a chance contact during a Patrol
Chance contact, where you come across the enemy unexpectedly
o Break contact and continue with mission. Patrol leader will call out direction and distance to break contact towards.
o Fire and movement. One group fires while the other moves off, alternating until withdrawn.
Describe immediate actions of a near ambush during a Patrol
Seabees in the killing zone, without order or signal, assault the ambush position.
People not in the killing zone maneuver against the attack force as directed.
Describe immediate actions of a far ambush during a Patrol
People in the killing zone without order or signal return fire while seeking cover
People outside the killing zone maneuver against the ambush force.
Break contact or continue to assault the position.
What are the lines on a 9 line medical evacuation request
Line 1. Location of the pick-up site.
Line 2. Radio frequency, call sign, and suffix.
Line 3. Number of patients by precedence:
Line 4. Special equipment required:
Line 5. Number of patients:
Line 6. Security at pick-up site:
Line 7. Method of marking pick-up site:
Line 8. Patient nationality and status:
Line 9. NBC Contamination:
Line 3 sub categories of a 9 line medical evacuation request
Line 3. Number of patients by precedence:
A - Urgent
B - Urgent Surgical
C - Priority
D - Routine
E - Convenience
Line 4 sub categories of a 9 line medical evacuation request
Line 4. Special equipment required:
A - None
B - Hoist
C - Extraction equipment
D - Ventilator
Line 5 sub categories of a 9 line medical evacuation request
Line 5. Number of patients:
A - Litter
B - Ambulatory
Line 6 sub categories of a 9 line medical evacuation request
Line 6. Security at pick-up site:
N - No enemy troops in area
P - Possible enemy troops in area (approach with caution)
E - Enemy troops in area (approach with caution)
X - Enemy troops in area (armed escort required)
* In peacetime - number and types of wounds, injuries, and illnesses
Line 7 sub categories of a 9 line medical evacuation request
Line 7. Method of marking pick-up site:
A - Panels
B - Pyrotechnic signal
C - Smoke signal
D - None
E - Other
Line 8 sub categories of a 9 line medical evacuation request
Line 8. Patient nationality and status:
A - US Military
B - US Civilian
C - Non-US Military
D - Non-US Civilian
E - EPW
Line 9 sub categories of a 9 line medical evacuation request
Line 9. NBC Contamination:
N - Nuclear
B - Biological
C - Chemical
* In peacetime - terrain description of pick-up site
Discuss the effectiveness and employment of early warning devices and pyrotechnics
Trip flares provide illuminate and to give warning of attacking or infiltrating enemy troops. Normally, it is placed in the path of, and activated by, an advancing enemy. They have little application other than defensive applications
M49 trip flare resembles a hand grenade in size and shape, except that it is provided with a bracket for attachment
What are the sections of the Convoy Commanders Checklist
Mission Requirements
Reconnaissance
Route Selection
Liaison and Coordinate
Convoy Organization
Movement plan
Security En route
Service support
Communications
What are some of the Mission Requirements on the Convoy Commanders Checklist
Current Intelligence/Situation
Task Vehicles: Type and Quantity
Personnel
Cargo by Type, Class, and Size
Security Vehicles: Type and Quantity
Maintenance Vehicles
Materials Handling Equipment
Command and Control Vehicles: Type and quantity
Lighting/Blackout Conditions/NVGs
What are some of the Route Selection points on the Convoy Commanders Checklist
Road
Bridges and Tunnels
Grades and Curves
Traffic Density
Requirements for Route Preparation or Repair
What are some of the Liaison and coordination points on the Convoy Commanders Checklist
Units along Route
Units Being Moved
Supporting Units
Highway Control Agencies/Movement Control Centers
shippers/Cargo Handlers
Engineer/explosive ordnance disposal requirements
What are some of the convoy organization points on the Convoy Commanders Checklist
Size of Serials/March Units
Type of Column
Operating Gaps
Serials/March Units
Vehicles
Positions of Security and Supporting Units
Positions of Control Personnel/Escorts Guides
Organization for Command
Vehicle Marking
What are some of the Movement plan points on the Convoy Commanders Checklist
Controlled Route, Convoy Clearance/Movement Credit
Road Movement Table, Special Permits or Authorization
Distance, Time, and Rate of Movement, Trip Distance, Required Start Time, Column Length, Slowest Vehicle
Required Delivery Time, Rate of Movement/Speed, Maximum Catch-up Speed, Loading, Report to, Type/Class Cargo, Outsize Loads, Materials Handling Equipment Required, Blocking, Bracing, and Cargo Restraints, Staging, Vehicle Checks, Cargo Checks, Time to Start Point, Operator Briefing, Location/Grid Coordinates, Identification Characteristics, Checkpoints
What are some more of the Movement plan points on the Convoy Commanders Checklist
Locations/Grid Coordinates, Identification Characteristics/
Guides and Markers, Positions, Posting and Pickup, Halts
Purpose, Time Duration, Locations, Maintenance
Trail, Enroute Support, Medical Support, Organic Capability
Evacuation, Release Point, Location/Grid Coordinates, Identification Characteristics, Report Requirements, Control of Vehicles and Operators, Unloading, Time and Place
Report to HHQ at Destination, Materials Handling Equipment Required, Backload and Turn Around
What are some more of the Enroute security points on the Convoy Commanders Checklist
Action in event of attack
Air Attack
Artillery Attack
Ground Attack
Sniper
Air Support Procedures
Fire Support Procedures
Use of Lights/Blackout Restrictions
What are some more of the service support points on the Convoy Commanders Checklist
Fuel
Location/Times
Types and Quantity
Accompanying Convoy
Messing/Rations
Locations/Times
Units on Route
Prescribed Loads
What are some more of the communications points on the Convoy Commanders Checklist
Convoy Control Net
Serial/March Unit Commanders
Parent Unit/Headquarters
Alert/Broadcast Net
Security/Tactical Nets
Fire and Air Support Nets
Medical Evacuation
Visual Signals
Sound Signals
Interpreter Requirements