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wingless insects, adults blood sucking. Cause pruritis, annoyance, anaemia in large numbers


Intermediate host for Dipylidium tapeworm

Flea Larva

Negatively phototropic, feed on flea dirt and organic debris, need high humidity

Flea Allergic Dermatitis

Few flea bites cause severe pruritis, hair loss, papular lesions and miliary dermatitis (cats)


Wingless, host specific permenant parasites, cause pediculosis. Transmission by close contact

Chewing Lice

Rasping mouthparts - feed on epithelial scales, scabs and feathers. Species on mammels and birds

Sucking Lice

Piercing mouthparts, feed on blood and tissue fluids. Species only on mammels.

Burrowing Mites

Short legs, tunnel into skin/hair follicles. Sarcoptes, knemidocoptes, demodex


Burrowing mite, 1 species with host adapted strains. Cause erythema, papule formation, alopecia, pruritis and self trauma


Treatment for sarcoptes in farm animals


Burrowing mite of birds.


Cause of scaly leg in birds

Depluming Itch

Cause by K.Gallinae. Mites burrow into feather shafts.


Cause of scaly beak. Treat with topical ivermectin.


Cigar shaped burrowing mite

Squamous Demodecosis

Less serious demodex infection in dogs. Get dry alopecia and skin thickens

Pustular Demodecosis

Serious demodex infection in dogs. Get thickened skin and pustules ooze blood and pus, severe prurits and 2* infection.

Non Burrowing Mites

Long legs, live on skin surface, fed on skin scales and tissues or suck blood

Psoroptes P.Ovis

Non burrowing mite, causes sheep scab, Direct transfer or on objects

Sheep Scab

Sheep disease, decreases post-shearing, treat propylactically - moxidectin or plunge dip


Non-burrowing mite of ruminants (mild disease) and horses (mange)


Non-burrowing mite of dogs and cats.


Most harbour otodectes but few show signs

Otodectes Cynotis

cats and dogs. Cause brown waxy ear exudate, 2* bacterial inf and head shaking.


Non-burrowing mite, v.contageous, mild in animals - scaly dermatitis, scurf. Severe in humans. Diagnose: scurf on dark paper = walking dandruff

Dermanyssus, D.Gallinae

Non-burrowing red mite of poultry. Spend most time off host, visit at night to feed. Eggs laid in crevices, adults survive L/T in unnoccupied wooden poultry houses

Dermanyssus, D.Gallinae

Blood sucking poultry mite. Causes irritation, restlessness, drop in egg production, anaemia.


Honeybee mite, notifiable UK. Blood sucking mite, weakens adult bees, damages larval bees, causes disorientation and spreads viral diseases.

Harvest Mite (Neo-trombicula, N.Autumnalis)

any animal, only larval stage parasitic - inject enzymes into skin and feed on partly digested tissue, bright orange, hairy.

Harvest Mite (Neo-trombicula, N.Autumnalis)

On pets affects head, ears, flank. On grazing animals affects face and limbs. Causes irritation and poss. hypersensitivity reaction.

Hyostrongylus Rubidus

trichostrongyoid in stomach of outdoor pigs. Larve most path. Cause weight loss and death in lactating sows.


Strongyloid that produces nodules LI of indoor and outdoor pigs. Not v.path, decrease growth (young pigs) and milk (sows), piglets may die. Cause thin sow syndrome.

Ascaris Suis

Ascarid in SI of weaner pigs. Inf by ingesting embyonated egg, larvae do hepatotracheal migration, causes milk spot liver (economic loss). Devlop immunity with time.

Trichuris Suis

Whipworm in LI of weaner pigs outdoors or deep litter in warm climates.


Severe zoonosis by eating undercooked infected pork. Rare UK.


Affect outdoor pigs, earthworm IH, cause severe lung damage, protective immunity develops quickly

Toxocara Canis

Ascarid in dog SI, vertical transmission to pups - somatic larvae in ***** tissues activated by pregnancy hormones

Toxascaris Leonina

Ascarid, affects canids and felines. Smooth pale eggs, Inf by ingestion of embryonated egg or paratenic host.

Uncinaria Stenocephala

Dogs. Plug feeding hookworm causes PLE. Inf by mouth, no vertical transmission.

Ancyclostoma Caninum

Dogs. Hookworm, rare UK. V.path - migration cause alveoli damage, blood sucker - anaemia. Inf mostly percutaneous, transmammary transmission

Trichuris Vulpis

Dog whipworm. Adult in caecal mucosa causes intermittant diarrhoea. Direct life cycle

Angiostrongylus Vasorum

Dog metastrongyloid. Adults produce anticoagulants - coagulation disoders. Signs - ascites, cough, vomit, ex.intolerance, wt.loss, anaemia

Angiostrongylus Vasorum

Dogs. Adults in pulmonary arteries and RHS heart. Eggs - larvae in alveoli - trachea - swallowed - faeces - slug IH, develop to L3 - eaten by dog FH - L3 in mesenteric LN - blood - adults in pulmonary A.

Filaroides Osleri

Atypical metastrongyloid in dog, transmission by L1 inf sputum in mutual grooming

Dirofilaria Immitis

Canine heartworm

Dirofilaria Immitis

Dogs, zoonotic, in warm humid climate. Adults produce microfilariae in circulation, ingested by IH mosquitos when bite, develop to L3, transmit to next host via saliva when mosquito next feeds.

Heterakis Gallinae

Atypical poultry ascarid, non-migratory, live in caeca, IH of histomonas meleagridis (causes blackhead in turkeys)

Syngamus Trachea

Strongyloidea, "gapeworm," many host birds - pheasants esp. Live in trachea cause resp disease. Feed on blood - cause inflam, haemorrhage, anaemia, death.

Trichostrongylus Tenuis

Birds - esp. grouse & geese. Live in caeca and intestine epithelium, cause decreased appetite and hypoalbuminea.


Dif species in dif. bird hosts. Non-migratory. Heavy inf - decreased growth rate and egg production, poss intestinal impaction. Aberrant worms can occur in hens eggs


Family. Most common horse nematodes, in LI, roundworms.


Horse. Large strongle, migrates to root of anterior mesenteric A. burrows into walls causing inflammation = verminous endarteritis. Poss thrombosis - block blood flow to gut - cause colic.

Large strongyles

Horse. Plug feeders, large buccal capsule, penetrates deep into LI wall cause small circular bleeding ulcers and poss anaemia


Horse. Non-migratory large strongyle, plug feeder. Small buccal capsule cause superficial damage, but feed in herds causing large ulcers.


Small horse strongyles, Initial inf with L3 causes local inflam. response. L4 are brown specks in LI mucosa = pepper-pot lesions. Can arrest at EL4 anytime of year - if emerge in summer cause wormy horse, if emerge in spring cause severe type 2 disease.

Parascaris Equarum

Horse ascarid in SI. Young horses (adults immune). Direct L.C. Inf by ingesting L2 (embryonated egg), larvae - hepatotracheal migration cause eosinophillic tracts and haemorrhage in liver and lungs. Adult worms cause wt.loss, unthriftiness and poss. impaction

Strongyloides Westeri

Rhabditoid in horse SI. Foals inf by ingesting L3 in mares milk/grass of by skin penetration, cause severe enteritis and diarrhoea. Adults immune, may be carriers.


Trichstrongyle, 5mm long, in horse stomach wall.

Oxyuris Equi

Horse. Pinworm of caecae, LI, rectum. F lays eggs on perianal hair, cause itchy bum. Inf by ingesting embronated egg containing L3. L4 feed on colon mucosa causing erosions

Dictyocaulus Arnfieldi

Horse lungworm, adults in small bronchi cause chonic cough. Donkeys are source of infection

Thelazia (T.Lacrymalis)

Horse, spiruroid, fairly common, in conjuctival sac/inner aspect of 3rd eyelid. Indirect L.C Musca nusience fly IH


Horse. Worldwide. Spiruroid in stomach. Muscid fly IH. Adults cause mild gastritis. Larvae cause summer sores. Control with ivermectin and covering/turning dung heaps to control IH


Spiruroid, bovine eyeworm.


abomasal strongyle, primary pathogen of PGE

Ostertagia ostertagi

Cattle, strongyle, 1cm long. Direct non-migratory L.C. PPP 3weeks, can arrest up to 6months. L3 in abomasum gastric glands

Type 1 disease

Ostertagia disease in dairy calves in 1st grazing season July-Oct. Caused by overwintered L3.

Resumed development of waves of EL4

Cause of type 2 disease ostertagia in dairy yearlings housed after first grazing season. See Feb-May. Signs - diarrhoea, wt.loss, reduced appetite, sub-mandibular oedema, death

Dictyocaulus Vivaparous

Cows. Trichostrongyloidea in trachea and lungs. Cause reduced wt.gain and death in young stock, reduced milk yield in adults. 200-300 worms cause clinical disease. Vacc for 1st season calves born indoors - Huskvacc.

Haemonchus (H.Contortus)

Sheep. In abomasum. High biotic potential esp. in tropics. Blood sucking parasite with piercing lancet on buccal capsule.

Nematodirus (N.Battus)

Sheep. In SI. Affects lambs 6-10wo in April-June. Cause profuse sudden onset diarrhoea, dehydration and death.

Nematodirus (N.Battus)

Sheep. Eggs deposited in spring (L3 in egg), hatch after ~12months on pasture.

Trichostrongyloidea (T.Axei)

In sheep abomasum. Cause black scour and wt.loss in lambs at end of 1st grazing season.

Dictyocaulus Filaria

Lungworm of sheep and goats. Direct L.C. Causes chronic cough and unthriftiness in young. Sporadic in temperate climate, more disease in warm climates.


Sheep lungworm. Indirect L.C - mullusc IH. Adults in alveoli. Not v.path


Sheep lungworm. Indirect L.C - mullusc IH. Adults in bronchioles. Not v.path

Ostertagia (O.Circumcincta)

Sheep. 1cm long worms in abomasum. Ewes are main source of inf, impaired immunity due to PPRI or if on poor nurtition

Type 1 disease

Ostertagia in lambs in first grazing season July-Sept. Cause wt.loss, reduced appetite and diarrhoea. High faecal egg count

Type 2 disease

Ostertagia in lambs after 1st grazing season Jan-May. Resumed development of arrested larvae in successive waves causes interittant diarrhoea and progressive wt.loss.


Tissue cyst forming coccidia, pigs,dogs,cats. Facultatively heteroxenous. Oocysts 2 sporocysts ach with 4 sporozoites

Isospora Suis

Pig tissue cyst forming coccidia. Severe enteritis in 6-15do piglets, villous atrophy, some mortality

Isospora Suis

Pig tissue cyst forming coccidia. Diagnose with IF staining of mucosal smears. Treat with toltrazouril


Piroplasm, blood born tick transmitted protozoa. Multiplies in RBC by budding. Giemsa stain.

Red Water Fever

Cattle disease caused by Babesia B.divergens. Pipestem faeces, neurologic signs, reduced milk yield, fever, anaemia, untreated = fatal.

Enzootic stability

Associated with high rate of transmission. Freq exposure increases immunity, high herd immunity, low disease incidence.

Enzootic Instablility

associated with low rate of transmission. Infreq exposure so low herd immunity. Higher incidence of disease.


Piroplasms decreasing ruminant production in Africa/Middle-East.

East Coast Fever

Lympho-proliferative disease of cattle caused by Theileria T.Parva. Signs-pyrexia, enlarged local LN, loss condition. At PME-pulmonary oedema, mucosal haemorrhage, LN and spleen atrophy

Brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus

Vector for East Coast Fever

7 days

PPP of Eimeria coccidia

Eimeria. E.Acervulina

Coccidia in poultry ant.gut. Causes thickening, white lesions, watery exudate and malabsorption

Eimeria E.Maxima

Coccidia in poultry mid gut. Causes thickened wall and malabsorption

Eimeria E.Necrotrix

Coccidia in poultry mid gut. Cause white spots, petachaie, haemorrhage into lumen. High mortality.

Eimeria E.Tenella

Coccidia in poultry caeca. Caeca swollen, thick and dark, contain necrotic tissue and blood. High mortality

Eimeria E.Deblinki

Pig coccidia causing diarrhoea and enteritis in week old piglets.

Eimeria E.Steidae

Rabbit coccidia in bile duct epitelium. Causes wasting disease - liver enlargerd with white nodules, ascites, polyuria, polydipsea, diarrhoea. Prevent-hygiene.

Eimeria. E.Zuerni

path. bovine coccidia, in CT of lower SI, and epithelium of caecum and colon. Blood stained dysentary and sloughed mucosa in poor condition calves/brought in calves/suckler herds when 1st t/o.

Eimeria. E.Alabomensis

Bovine coccidia, cause diarrhoea in calves after spring t/o as passive immunity from colostrum wanes. High faecal oocyst count but may die before any shed.


In-feed anticoccidial drug

Neospora Caninum

Tissue cyst forming coccidia, causes abortion amd decreased milk yield in cattle IH (inf. for life) and lameness in dog FH. PPP 5days.

Neospora Caninum

Tissue cyst forming coccidia. In pups-ascending paralysis, muscle wasting, myocarditis. Successive litters cn be affected.


Tisue cyst forming coccidia, many species. Herbivore IH (2 asexual schizogonys to form bradyzoites in tissue cysts muscle) Carnivore FH (gametogeny occurs)


Widespread, enzootic stability in grazing animals, most asymptomatic, if disease- non-specific, fever, pyrexia, anorexia, salivation, reduced milk etc.

Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis

Disease caused by acidental ingestion Sarcocystis Neurona in horses (dead end hosts). Signs - ataxia and pareisis


Tissue cyst forming coccidia. Zoonotic to man by ingesting undercooked infected pork.


FH for T.Gondii. Infected by swallowing sporulated oocysts (auto-inf) or eating inf IH tissues.


Cause abortion/mummified lambs/weak lambs in non-immune ewe. White lesions on cotelydons. Vacc.6wks pre-tupping


Produced by acute asexual division of T.Gondii in IH and spread via blood to most tissues.


Slow growing intracellular chronic phase of T.Gondii infection in muscle and nerve tissue of IH

Cryptosporidium C.Parvum

Intestinal protozoa causing diarrhoea in many animals and man. Direct L.C. Auto-inf or faecal oral transfer. Sporulated oocysts passed in faeces.


Protozoa causing diarrohoea in man. Water borne inf. Diagnose by oocysts in faecal smears, ZN stain.


Flagellate protozoan causing diarrohea in animals and man. Direct L.C transfer faecal-oral or water borne. Cysts excreted interrmittantly in faeces, to diagnose must sample 3 consecutive days min.

Histomonas Meleagridis

Flagellate protozoan. Asypmtomatic in chickens, causes blackhead/entero-hepatitis in turkeys. Larvae carried in egg of vector Heterakis Gallinarum. Turkey=yellow droppings.

Tritrichomonas Foetus

Venereally transmitted cattle flagellate protozoa. Asymptomatic in bull, cause infertility and abortion in cow. Eradicated UK due to AI.


Cilliate protozoa, normal commensal of pig LI, if mucosa damaged - invasive - causes ulceration and dysentary.


Tropical protozoa. Intracellular parasite of macrophages of humans and canids. Long incubation period. Many dogs assymptomatic. Cutaneous-ulceration. Visceral-chronic wasting, intermittant fever, lymphdenopathy.


Blood sucking vector for Leishmania

Salavarian Trypanosoma

Group. Transmitted by tetse fly. Causes chronic wasting disease in cattle and human sleeping sickness.

Triatomid big, tabonid, ked

Vectors for stercararian trypanosoma. Transmit to host by contamination of wound with infected insect faeces.

Antigenic variation

Method used by trypanosoma for evading host immune response.


Eukaryotic, motile, unicellular organisms. Have chromosomes in nuclear envolope. Digestion and nutrition by pino-/phagocytosis. Repro mostly asexual (sporozoa=sexual and asexual)


Nusience flies. Lay eggs in manure, hibernate in winter. Grey thorax with longitudinal stripes and yellow abdomen with 1 black stripe.


Nusience fly. Cause production losses. Transmits enteroviruses, Anthrax, E.Coli, Salmonella, Moraxella Bovis (N.F.Eye)


Nusience horse fly. Blood sucking F active on hot days. Wing is closed discal cell. Vector for anthrax, pasteurellosis, equine inf.anemia, african horses sickness, rickettsial


Nusience horse fly. Eggs laid on leaves overhanging water, larvae drop into water, after 1yr back to land and pupate, adult emerges in few wks.

Glossindae, Tetse Fly

Nusience fly. In Africa. M+F blood sucking. Butchers cleaver cell wings. Transmit trypanosomes that cause fatal disease. Lay single larvae at base of shrubs, pupates in soil, adult emerges 1 month on.

Culicoides midges

Nusience fly. Blood sucking F. Cause sweet itch in horses, vector for blue tongue, african horse sickness and parasitic onchocerca. Eggs laid on ground near water-larvae into water-pupate-adult, takes 6-12months.

Culicidae, mosquitos

Nusiecnce fly. Biting F sucks blood. Transmit equine encephalitis, myxamatosis and canine heartworm D.Immitis. Eggs laid on water-aquatic larvae and pupae-adult fly, temp dependant 2wks+.

Melophagus, sheep ked

Nusience fly. Wingless, whole life cycle on host. Lay 1 larvae on host-pupates-adult in few wks, temp dependant.

Melophagus, sheep ked

Nusience fly. Hairy, brown, wingless. Biting mouthparts, suck blood, cause anaemia and wool damage. IH for non-path sheep trypanosoma malophagium.

Psychodidae, Sand Flies

Nusience flies in tropics. F suck blood. Transmit leishmania. Egg on gorund/in cracks-larvae-pupate-adult. Takes 4-6wks.

Simulidae, Black Fly

Nusience fly. F sucks blood-painful bites. Vector for viral eastern encephalitis and oncocerca parasite in cattle. Worldwide, active morning and evening on warm cloudy days.

Simulidae, Black Fly

Nusience fly. Eggs laid on plants/stones under flowing water, larvae atttch to submerged rocks, pupate, adult flies emerge en mass, takes~1month. Small black flies, clear wings, arched thorax.

Haematobia, Horn Fly

Nusience fly. Spends most time on host-cattle (back and shoulders), Feed on thin skin, cluster along back and bite, cause skin wounds,then get 2* myiasis producing inf. Cause production loss and annoyance Eggs laid in fresh dung.

Stable Fly

Nusience fly, worldwide. Spends most time off host but feed on it. Fly worry causes production losses. Transmit pathogenic bacteria, viruses and trypanosmes. IH for horse worm Habronemia. Eggs laid in rotting hay/straw.

Hydrotaea Irritans, Head Fly

In cattle transmits summer mastitis. In sheep irritation causes self-inflicting damage predisposing to 2* inf, blow fly strike. Eggs laid in decay vegetation/faeces in summer, larvae overwinter, pupate in spring, adult in summer.

Forsest Fly

Nusience fly, red with yellow spots.On horses and cattle, biting causes irritation. Found on perineum and inner thigh. Mate onhost, deposit 1 larvae-pupate-adults emerge in spring.


Family of myiasis producing flies obligate larval parasites, inc. warble flies, sheep nasal bot fly and horse bot fly.


insignificant tape worms, scolex w/ grooves, central genital pore


significant tape worms, scolex w/ 4 suckers (some "armed" w/ hooks), lateral genital pore


mostly in SI, absorb nutrients across body surface, new segments bud off behind scolex, each one ♀ & ♂ (cross-fertilise), gravid segments at end of chain with >100,000 eggs, each immediately infective (contain larva w/ 6hooks - the "onchosphere" w/ a striated shell), 1-2 segments drop off daily


larval stage of cyclophylidea in Intermdeiate Host


metacestode type, fluid filed bladder w/ 1 inverted scolex


Warble fly, not UK, notifiable. Eradication possible as whole population overwinter in cattle.

Warble Fly

F lay white eggs on legs and belly of host, larvae hatch, migrate down hair follicles/skin breaks, migrate S.C. to diaphragm then to winter resting site for 3 months-in spring migrate to midline back-L3 put spiracles through skin . Cause reduced milk yield and wt.gain and hide damage

Epidural fat of spinal canal

Winter resting site of warbly fly H.Bovis


Winter resting site in oesophageal wall. F lay rows of eggs on belly and legs

Oestrus Ovis

Sheep nasal bot fly, grey and black spots on abdomen, clear wings. Cause annoyance, poor feeding and reduced wt.gain, nasal discharge and sneezing

False Gid

Syndrome caused by heavy infestation of Oestrus Ovis, erodes bone in sinus, enter brain causing nervous signs - high stepping gait and in-coordination

Oestrus Ovis

F squirt liquid containing larvae up sheep nostrils. Larvae up nasal passages to frontal sinuses and feed on nasal mucosa, mature maggots return to nostrils, sneezed out pupate on ground, adult emerges 1 month later and lives 2-3wks

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