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n intercessor figure starting in Medieval Europe, who represented interests of the local Jewish community, especially those of a town's ghetto, and worked as a "lobbyist" negotiating for the safety and benefit of Jews with the authorities holding power

Council of Four Lands

This council in Lublin, Poland was the central body of Jewish authority in Poland from 1580 to 1764. Seventy delegates from local kehillot met to discuss taxation and other issues important to the Jewish community. The "four lands" were Greater Poland, Little Poland, Ruthenia and Volhynia.

Chmielnicki massacres

slaughter of thousands of Jews when Cossacks revolted against a Polish ruling faction in the Ukraine (1648); led by Bogdan Chmielnicki


Mode of study in which every single apparent inconsistency or contradiction within Talmud or btwn its medieval commentaries was resolved and reconciled through interpretation

Moses Isserles

Moses Isserles, also spelled Moshe Isserlis, (Kraków, Poland, 1520 - May 11, 1572[1]), was an eminent Ashkenazic rabbi, talmudist, and posek, renowned for his fundamental work of Halakha (Jewish law), entitled ha-Mapah (lit., "the tablecloth"), an inline commentary on the Shulkhan Aruch


Prayers written in Yiddish for women- provided women with possibility of religious expression independent of the male-dominated ritual of Hebrew synagogue litruygy

Court Jews

Indiv who provided essential services to the rulers of the numerous German states in the postwar order


an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests

Uriel da Costa

Intellectual of converso origin who questioned rabbinic authority, and the validity of rabbinic Judaism

Benedict de Spinoza

Excommunicated from Amsterdam for heretical work; pioneering work for modern philosophical and political thought-first Jew that didn't return to Jewish community or convert

Secular Jew

One who rejected the religious teachings of traditional Judaism without embracing another religion

Shabbetai Zvi

False Messiah


Muslim-Sabbatian sect remnants of which exist in Turkey today- followers of Zvi

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