Who: People of America
What: The 1920s was a time period of prosperity and of changing society. The government's role was a large part with limits interference with business, tax cuts, debt, government spending, higher tariffs to protect young industries. Business innovation and technology prospered with the mass production creating a wide range of consumer goods sold at low prices, economic growth 9due to cars, airplanes, and radio), and high wages. New consumer society gave people a more disposable income and leisure time, credit became more readily available, and mass advertising began. Cultural changes began with a new youth culture (new morality), youth and women gain independence, new mass media with technology (makes sports develop). For African Americans, Harlem Renaissance begins, literature reveals racial pride and contempt sting African American voting blocs in Northern cities, 1st African American from the North is elected to Congress, and NAAco battles segregation and discrimination.
Where: United States
Why: New technology created a booming economy with rising stock prices and increased consumer spending. As the 1920s came to a close economic problems triggered the Great Depression. The 1920s led to increased federal regulation of the economy and several new programs. The federal government now had to take on the task of protecting people from economic hardship.
What: They won the right to vote in 1920, and then sought to break free of the traditional roles and behavior that were expected. Their attitudes toward marriage changed with the ideas of romance, pleasure, and friendship. Cars also allowed young people to escape the careful watch of their parents and let them go out and socialize. Women in the work force began to define the new morality. They took jobs because they needed wages for their families or they worked to break away from parental authority and establish financial independence Earning money allowed women to participate in consumer culture. Fashion was also a way the women began to branch out. The idea of the flapper girl personified changes. A flapper girl smoked cigarettes, drank, wore makeup and sleeveless dresses with short skirts. Women also advanced in the educational field. College attendees often found support for their emerging sense of independence. They were encouraged their students to pursue careers and to challenge traditional ideas about women's role in society. Women also made contributions in science, medicine, law, and literature. Public Health nurse Margaret Sanger that they could improve their families by the number of kids they would have, so she founded American Birth Control League in 1921 and this became known as Planned Parenthood.
Why: Women achieved greater independence, access to higher education, and professional opportunities.
What: Credit had been available before the 1920s, but most people thought it was shameful to have debt. Attitudes toward debt started changing as people began believing in their ability to pay their debts over time. Mass advertising was a large part of consumerism. Advertisers linked products with qualities associated with modern era, such as progress, convenience, leisure, success, and style. Many industries had begun to create modern organizational structures. Companies were split into divisions with different functions, such as sales, marketing, and accounting. Managers freed executives and owners from the day-to-day running of the companies. The large numbers of new managers helped increase the size of the middle class, which in turn added to the nation's prosperity. Industrial workers also had more disposable income, partly due to rising wages and partly because many corporations introduced what came to be called welfare capitalism. Companies allowed workers to buy stock, participate in profit sharing, and receive medical care and pensions. Employers promoted the open shop- a workplace where employees were not required to join a union.
Why: Higher wages and shorter work days resulted in a decade of long buying spree that kept the economy booming. Shifting from traditional attitudes of thrift and prudence, Americans in the 1920s enthusiastically accepted their new role as consumers
Who: Anyone invested in stock, Banks, government
What: The stock market had plunged October of 1929. People had to pay back the money they borrowed to buy stocks, which were now selling for far less than he had paid for them. Other brokers made similar margin calls. Nervous customers put their stocks up for sale at a frenzied pace, driving the market into a tailspin. The following week on October 29 a day later that was dubbed Black Tuesday. The prices took the steepest dive yet. That day, almost 16 million shares to stock were sold; the stock market lost between $10 billion and $15 billion in value.
When: October 21, 1929 (when it began)
Where: New York (where the stock market is) but spread to affect more people
Why:In 1929, the market was running out of new customers. In September, professional investors sensed danger and began to sell off their holdings. Prices slipped, other investors sold shares to pay the interest on their brokerage loans, and prices fell further. The crash undermined the economy's ability to overcome other weaknesses.
Who:Roosevelt and advisors
What: The New Deal began with the hundred days where Congress passed 15 major acts to resolve the economic crisis. Together these programs made up of what would later be called the First New Deal. He first took on the banks and debt relief. He passed a law that required federal examiners to survey the nation's banks and issue Treasury Department licenses to those that were financially sound. He created programs such as the Home Owners Loan Corporation, The Farm Credit Administration, the AAA, NRA, the CCC, FERA, PWA, and the CWA.
Why: The programs did not restore prosperity, but hey reflected Roosevelt's zeal for action and his willingness to experiment. Banks were reopened, many more people retained their homes and farms, and more people were employed. It restored the peoples' faith in the nation.
What: The first breakthrough came in 1942 when Szilard and Enrico Fermi, another physicist, built the world's first nuclear reactor at the University of Chicago. Groves then organized a team of engineers and scientists to build an atomic bomb at a secret laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico. On July 16, 1945 they detonated the world's first atomic bomb in New Mexico. Admiral William Leahy believed an economic blockade and conventional bombing would convince Japan to surrender. On August ,1945, a B-29 bomber named Enola Gay dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, an important industrial city. The bomb destroyed about 63% of the city. Three days later, on August 9, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan.
Why: On August 15, 1945 (V-J Day) Japan surrendered. The long war was over.
Who:Japan, Korea, US
What: US troops entered Korea to disarm Japanese troops. Allies divided Korea at 38th parallel, Soviets controlled N, US controlled S, communist N, American backed govt in S, North invaded South who quickly drove back southerners. Truman saw as test of containment policy and ordered naval and air power into action. Truman got UN troops to support S. N troops pushed S further and further - MacArthur finally pushed N back across 38th parallel. China entered war to help N, pushed S back across 38th parallel, MacArthur was fired after criticizing Truman for not taking his advice (Truman wanted to keep a limited war- war fought to achieve a limited objective such as containing communism).
Why: Before war US used political pressure and economic aid to contain communism. After/during, US started using military and the end of the war started military build up. US saw Europe as most important place to contain communism. US became more present militarily in Asia - signed SEATO: defense agreements with Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Australia
Who:Gorbachev, Soviets, US
What: SALT I, Detente(Noxons visit to china) , perestroika, glasnost, strong anti communist Reagan helped the end to the Cold War. The US saw that Soviets were somewhat letting up on their citz (perestroika: restructuring, and glasnost: openness) citizens to more freely choose what they did with their businesses, more freedom of speech, and more freedom of religion. US tactics of Detente had worked after encouraging and cooperating rather than threatening and being more forceful.
Why: perestroika and glasnost led to revolutions in Eastern Europe (countries saw what freedom was like and wanted more) - revolutions replaced communist governments with democratic ones. The Soviet Union, after inefficient planning fell.
Who: A group of African Americans that fought for civil rights issues. Organized by Huey Newton, Bobby Seale, and Eldridge Cleaver
What: Group of people that believed a revolution was necessary in U.S. Urged AA to arm themselves to fight whites for equal rights. Called for an end to racial oppression and control of major institutions in AA community, such as schools, law enforcement, housing, and hospitals. They were a militant group who also preached black power, black nationalism, and economic self sufficiency.
When: 1966 -towards end of civil rights movement
Where: started in Oakland, CA
Significance: Their party began as a community that provided free breakfast and liberation schools to children in ghettos. It evolved into murder, rape, heists, etc. where blacks rebelled against police brutality.
Who: Native Americans, one of the smallest minority groups; AIM- a American Indian Movement
What: They faced enormous problems: national average income was $1,000 less than AA. Their unemployment rate was also very high on reservations where half of NA lived. NA living in cities had little education/training. Life expectancy for NA was ~7 years below national average. Issued a manifesto called Declaration of Indian Purpose, asking for federal programs to create greater economic opportunities on reservations. NA didn't want to be accepted into mainstream society; they wanted more independence from it. Congress passed the Indian Civil Rights Act, which guaranteed reservation residents the protections of the Bill of Rights, but it also recognized local reservation law. A more militant group was formed called the American Indian Movement (AIM). This group staged a symbolic protest where they occupied the federal prison Alcatraz, claiming ownership "by right of discovery." Another famous protest took place in Wounded Knee, South Dakota. AIM seized Wounded Knee for 70 days, demanding that the government honor past treaty obligations to NA; the protest did become violent and then ended.
Where: Indian reservations,
Significance: By mid 1970s the NA movement made some gains. Congress passed the Indian Self Determination and Educational Assistance Act, which increased funds for NA education and expanded local control over federal programs. NA won court cases involving land and water rights. Many reservations have improved their economic conditions by actively developing businesses and gambling casinos have become successful.
Who: About 20% of American population, especially people of color and those living in inner cities and Appalachia, Native Americans
What: 20% of Americans lived below the poverty line--imaginary marker made by gov. to reflect the minimum income required to support a family. As people moved to suburbs, they left behind the poor and uneducated. Along with that they took their tax dollars and inner cities could no longer provide adequate public transportation, housing, and other services. The gov. tried to intercede by creating urban renewal programs. These programs failed because they tore down slums to create high rise buildings for poor residents that created an atmosphere of violence. Many citizens in inner cities were AA who faced discrimination in schools, housing, hiring, and salaries. Hispanics were another minority group. Many joined the Bracero program which brought Mexicans to the U.S. to work on farms and ranches. They lived in horrible conditions in extreme poverty. Native Americans faced the termination policy- the federal gov. withdrew all official recognition of the NA groups as legal entities and made them subject to the same laws as white citizens; termination deepened their poverty. Residents of Appalachia also felt the poverty. Their economy relied on coal mining, but with the mechanization of mining, many lost their jobs in Appalachia (mountainous region stretching from New stork to Georgia.) There was also a large increase in juvenile delinquency during this time.
Where: Inner cities, Appalachia
Significance: Most Americans were unaware of the poverty in America and assumed the country's general prosperity had provided everyone with a comfortable existence.
Who: People who didn't want to reform the society, but rejected it as a whole; hippies; Bob Dylan
What: These people who rejected the mainstream society created a lifestyle based on flamboyant dresses, rock music, drug use, and communal living. Hippies rejected rationality, order, and traditional middle-class values. The movement began to decline when hippie communities became dangerous places and people learned the consequences of drug use.
Where: America, San Francisco's Haight Ashbury district
Significance: The counterculture was a reaction to the 1950s stereotype of the white collar man in the gray flannel suit. Many newcomers to the counterculture were attracted to the style that defined the movement--long hair, NA headbands, long dresses, shabby jeans, and use of drugs.