Normal range of pH levels of blood and tissue fluids in the human body
Broad range: 7.35-7.45, Narrow range: 7.38-7.42
Difference between a strong acid and a weak acid
Strong acid has complete dissociation. Weak acid retains some hydrogen ions.
Difference between a strong base and a weak base
Strong base - all the sites have hydrogen ions attached to it. Weak base - have some open site.
What are the body's two major physiological buffer system for compensating acid and base imbalances?
Bicarbonate and phosphate
What happens to blood pH levels during hyperventilation? Why?
Increase in pH because the individual is releasing too much CO2 (partial pressure CO2 decrease)
What happens to blood pH levels during rebreathing? Why?
Decrease in blood pH levels. Retain too much CO2 (pp CO2 increase)
As respiration increases, does the partial pressure of CO2 increase or decrease?
Hyperventilation, pCO2 decrease
As respiration decreases, does the partial pressure of carbon dioxide increase or decrease?
Hypoventilation, pCO2 increase
How does the renal system compensate for conditions of respiratory acidosis?
Increase in hydrogen concentration because decrease in pH so increase renal secretion of hydrogen
How does the renal system compensate for conditions of respiratory alkalosis?
Increase in pH means decrease in hydrogen concentrion so increase renal absorption of hydogens
What are some causes of metabolic acidosis?
Diarrhea, diabetes mellitus, exercise (make lactic acid)
Explain how the respiratory system compensates for metabolic acidosis
Decrease in pH so high hydrogen concentration. Hyperventilation - alkalosis to compensate for acidosis
Explain how the respiratory system compensates for metabolic alkalosis
Increase in pH so low hydrogen concentration. Hypoventilation - compensate acidosis for alkalosis.
Explain how the renal system compensates for metabolic alkalosis
Increase renal reabsorption of hydrogen. Increase in bicarbonate would lead to an increase in secretion of bicarbonate.
As the metabolic rate increases, what happens to the respiratory rate
Produce more CO2, increase respiratory rate
As the metabolic rate increases what happens to the pH levels of the blood?
Decrease because make more hydrogen
As the metabolic rate decreases, what happens to the respiratory rate?
Make less CO2, decrease respiratory rate.
As the metabolic rate decreases, what happens to the pH levels in the blood?
Increase because less hydrogen lying around
Describe what happened to the concentration of ions in the urine when the pCO2 was lowered
Decreased concentration of ions in urine because all the ions are in the blood