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142 terms

UCSB Religious Studies 12

pre-midterm flash cards
STUDY
PLAY
Gilgamesh
(r. ~2500 BCE) King of Uruk, subject of Epic of Gilgamesh
Enkidu
Gilgamesh's best friend, killed by sickness after taunting goddess Ishtar
Utanapishtim
Survivor of Mesopotamian Great Flood, granted immortality by the gods. Gives Gilgamesh two chances to become immortal.
Ishtar
Goddess of Fertility. Gilgamesh scorns her and kills her Bull of Heaven, provoking her rage.
Humbaba
Guardian of the cedars. Gilgamesh and Enkidu kill and take his cedars.
cuneiform
Mesopotamian form of writing. All symbols, written on tablets. One of the earliest forms of writing.
ziggurat
Mesopotamian places of worship. Looks like stepped pyramids.
House of Dust
Underworld in Epic of Gilgamesh. Its inhabitants are covered in dust and eat clay.
Sheol
Earliest Jewish conception of the afterlife. A place of darkness 'removed from the light of God'
mourning
Grieving over the death of someone
Annunaki
A group of important Mesopotamian gods
zaqiqu
Mesopotamian term for spirit, related in some way to dreams
etemmu
Mesopotamian name for a dead person who was not buried. The spirit will wander the earth and can seriously harm living people.
kispu
A ritual banquet for the deceased
Votive offering
Placing something in a sacred religious place without plans of retrieving it
theodicy
A philosophical study attempting to prove that god is omnibenevolent (all-loving), omniscient (all-knowing), and omnipotent (all-powerful).
predestination
Belief that god determines beforehand which people go to heaven or hell
dualism
A religion that deals with a dichotomy, such as good vs. evil, yin vs yang, or heaven and hell.
karma
Belief that how a person behaves in life will somehow influence what happens to them after they die
"Stone and Banana"
Indonesian explanation of mortality. 1st Couple was hungry. God gave rock. Still hungry. God gives banana, which they ate. Thats why people are mortal like bananas and not immortal like rocks.
"The Cast Skin"
Other Indonesian explanation of mortality. People used to be able to shed skin and throw in river, being immortal. One day an old woman kept her old skin and put it back on. Since then people have been immortal.
theogony
How the gods came to exist.
cosmogony
How the universe came to exist.
anthropogony
How humans came to exist
John Freeman
Saver of humens
Jahweh/Elohim
Jewish name for the Abrahamic God.
Garden of Eden/Paradise
Place Adam and Eve got thrown out of in all Abrahamic religions.
Valley of Dry Bones
Symbolic resting site of the people of Israel. The LORD brought Ezekiel here and told him that he will revive the bones on Judgment Day.
Eschatological expectation
Believing that an "End Times" or apocalypse will occur.
St. Augustine
(354-430) Defined the modern concepts of purgatory and predestination
Golgotha/Calvary
The site where Jesus was crucified.
Qur'an
The Muslim holy book
Muhammad
According to Islam, the 'seal', or last of the prophets
Islam
An Abrahamic religion which comes from the Middle East.
Allah
Islam name for the Abrahamic god
Angels (Islam)
According to Islam, angels are messengers of God. They have no free will, and sometimes test humans at God's command.
Shaitan
Islamic view of the devil. Hubris personified, his only power is to cast evil suggestions into men, women, and jinn
Tower of silence
A circular, raised structure used by Zoroastrians for exposure of the dead.
Sky burial
In Old Tibetan Buddhism, a human corpse was cut into pieces at specific locations and left for birds of prey to eat. This is because the soul has already reincarnated, so its old body is merely an empty shell.
cremation
To burn the body of someone deceased
relics
Part of a body of a saint, or another important religious item
baraka
A blessing, from God (in Islam), or by people at a ceremony (in Judaism)
dargah
A Sufi shrine built over the grave of a revered religious person, often a Sufi saint.
Civil religion
To be a civil religion, a religion must have all of the following: (1) diety, (2) life to come, (3) reward of virtue, punishment of vice, and (4) the exclusion of religious tolerance.
Arlington Nat'l Cemetary
A cemetery in West Virginia where many important American military personnel have been buried
megalith
A large stone used to construct a structure or monument, such as Stonehenge.
dolmen
A single-chamber tomb made out of megaliths.
menhir
A large upright-standing stone. A subgroup of megaliths.
mausoleum
A big building built to house a specific dead person. Some people consider it synonymous with 'tomb,' others think the mausoleum surrounds the tomb.
Hypogeum
An underground, non-Christian temple or tomb
necropolis
A large cemetery or burial ground, usually including structured tombs
Pyramid texts
A collection of ancient Egyptian religious texts, possibly the oldest religious texts in the world
Coffin texts
A collection of ancient Egyptian funerary spells written on coffins
Book of the Dead
An ancient Egyptian funerary text. Contained a list of spells to help assist a dead person's journey through the underworld and to the afterlife. A number of these spells were originally Coffin Texts.
Osiris
Egyptian god of the underworld
Horus
Egyptian god of Sky, War, and Protection. Son of Isis and Osiris.
Seth
Egyptian God of Chaos, who killed Osiris. (A different Seth is Adam and Eve's yougest named son)
Isis
Goddess of mothers, fertility, and the downtrodden. Sister of Osiris who later found his pieces, resurrected him with magic, married him, and gave birth to Horus.
Ra
Ancient Egyptian Sun god. Sometimes merged with Horus.
ka
Egyptian concept of vital essence, it translates to "vital spark". It distinguished the difference between a living and a dead person, and death occurs when it leaves the body.
ba
Egyptian concept of everything that made a human unique, kinda like personality. It was bird-shaped combined with 'ka' to make the soul.
pharaoh
The Egyptian political and religious ruler. When a pharaoh died, he became a god.
Ma'at
Ancient Egyptian concept of truth, balance, order, law, morality, and justice. Sometimes personified as a goddess.
amulet
Any object intended to bring luck or protection to its owner.
Opening of the Mouth
Egyptian burial custom. Involved the symbolic 'opening' of a statue's (or mummy's) mouth so that it could eat and drink in the afterlife.
Anubis
Jackal -headed god associated with mummification and the afterlife. Displaced by Osiris during the Middle Kingdom.
embalming
Preserving human remains. An important part of Ancient Egyptian burial.
Canopic jars
What the Egyptians preserved embalmed remains in. Each organ got its own jar.
shabti
Egyptian funerary figurines. Placed in tombs and designed to act as substitutes in case the dead guy was called upon to do manual labor in the afterlife.
Field of Reeds
The heavenly paradise where Osiris ruled after displacing Anubis
Weighing of the Heart
Egyptians believed the gods would compare a dead person's heart to Ma'at, to see if the person acted in accordance with Ma'at. If they had, the person's ba and ka would be united into an akh.
Sraddha
Hindu ritual, usually for honoring one's dead parents. Hire "Brahmanaa" and treat them as if they are your parents: give them lots of food and pinda, wash their feet, and pay them fees.
pinda
A round ball made of flour and rice, used in Hindu religious practices
Agni
Hindu god of fire and acceptor of sacrifices.
Iblis
Another term for the Islam devil
Votive tablets
Ancient Greek tablets that were votive offerings
monotheism
Religions that have only one god
soteriology
The study of religious doctrines of salvation
Resurrection body
After death, the immaterial body which travels into the afterlife
Jesus Christ
The Christian messiah, believed to be the one who will resurrect his chosen people after the apocalypse
sheep and goats
At Judgment, God will separate the good from the bad, as a shepherd divides his sheep from the goats.
qiyamma
According to the Quran, Judgment Day.
soma/sema
soul/prison. Important concept of philology.
barzakh
According to Islam, the intermediate state where the soul is transferred through across the boundaries of the mortal realm into a kind of ''cold sleep'' where the soul will rest until the Qiyamma.
hadith
In Islam, a saying, act, or tacit approval ascribed to Muhammad
Final Judgment
Christian final judgment by God.
philology
The study of language in written historical sources
Indo-European
Something relating to the regions within Indonesia and Europe
humus
The point where organic matter has reached a point of stability, and will break down no longer.
microcosm
The smallest scale of existence, subatomic particles or generic small things. Shares patterns with the macrocosm.
macrocosm
The largest scale of existence, universes and the concept of matter. Shares patterns with the microcosm.
sacrifice
Killing something or giving something up to appease gods or other beings of power.
Homology
When different species share similar structures. For example, the arm bones of humans, cats, bats, and whales.
linear/cyclic time
Differing opinions of time. With linear, the universe was created and will eventually die. In cyclic, the universe either restarts or rewinds, and continues again.
Zoroastrianism
Religion based off of the teachings of Zarathustra. The creator Ahura Mazda is all good, and evil emanates from a different source and only tries to destroy what Ahura Mazda has created.
Five Collectors/Receptors
Water - blood
Plants - hair
Earth - flesh and bone
Fire - energy
Wind - life breath
Gayomart
According to Zoroastrianism, the first man.
Hainuwele
According to the Wemale tribes of Seram, a "coconut girl" who could excrete valuables. The villagers killed her and out of her remains grew the tuberous plants (aka yams) the Seram live off of.
Myth of Er
Story by Plato that ends his Republic. A soldier named Er sees the afterlife and reincarnates. Introduced the idea that moral people are rewarded and immoral people punished after death.
Yams
Good source of potassium. Extremely important as a source of food, religious worship, and economic hierarchy for the Wemale people.
Exchange ritual
Wemale practice wherein the families of the island would bring their biggest yam and determine their social hierarchy by whoever had the largest
Socrates
Greek Athenian philosopher. One of the founders of western philosophy
Ancestral mounds (dobu)
Where each Wemale family grew their yams.
Phaedo
Work by Plato. Depicting the death of Socrates, it explores the concept of afterlife and introduces Plato's concept of forms.
Upanisads
Philosophical texts considered to be an early source of Hindu religion
samsara
Means 'to flow on,' to perpetually wander, or to pass through states of existence
Three debts
According to Hinduism, each person is born with three debts: (1) Dedicate ones life to the service of God, (2) debt to sages and saints, (3) debt to ancestors
pitrs
Spirits of departed ancestors, according to Hindus.
pretas
"hungry ghosts", usually jealous or greedy people who are now dead. Appear in Buddhist and Hindu texts. Can also refer to souls in general
World of the Fathers
The place good preta get to go, if the living perform the proper rituals.
Vaitarani
According to Hindu texts, the river that separates the earth and the infernal world. It is the realm of Yama, the god of death.
Benares
A holy city to Hindus, buddhists, and Jains, located in India on the banks of the River Ganges.
sapindikarana
A Hindu ritual performed on the 12th day after someone's death. It allows a deceased's preta to enter the world of the ancestors known as pitrloka.
Rite of the Skull
Hindu ritual. After burning a corpse, the skull is cracked open with a long stick, usually of bamboo. It releases the soul from entrapment in the body.
shaman
Persons of religious importance. They usually know the sacred rituals and perform them during public religious ceremonies.
Orpheus
Mythological Greek musician. Failed to rescue his wife from hell and was later torn apart by Maenads. Many cults sprang up around the character.
Mysteries or "mystery religions"
religions which would keep their practices and texts secret, told only to initiates. We don't really know what most of them did due to the inherent concept
katabasis
In religion, a term meaning to visit the underworld.
Tablet of Petelia
Written by Orpheus. Used to hold great religious importance
Dionysios
A different cult that opposed the Orpheics. Liked reaching enlightenment through animalistic methods, such as eating raw meat and blood orgies.
Titans
Huge beings which included Zeus' father Chronos. Zeus locked them up and took over with the Olympic gods.
Lethe
One of the five rivers of Hades. Souls who drank too much from it forgot everything
anamnesis
The opposite of amnesia. It's where you remember something you'd previously forgot. Forewarned philosophers could do it after reincarnating.
daimon
Demon. Good or bad supernatural beings between mortals and gods, such as inferior divinities and ghosts of dead heroes.
sarcophagus
A receptacle for a dead guy. Greek in origin, famously associated with Egyptians.
Prothesis
A place in a sanctuary where you prepare the bread and wine for the Eucharist (that ceremony where you commemorate Jesus)
ekphora
According to Athenian tradition, the transport of the coffin to the cemetery
Buddha
Founder of the Buddhist religion. Considered an enlightened individual rather than a god
enlightenment
In Buddhism, the complete abandonment physical pleasures. The benefit, now cannot feel physical pain or loss, since one has accepted that his body is just a casket that he will shed upon death and reincarnation.
bodhisattva
In Buddhism, either an enlightened existence or an enlightened being.
Celestial buddha
Those who gained enlightenment and now dwell in the heavens or various paradises.
meditation
The third state of being one can achieve while alive (the others are awake and sleeping).
Highest Yoga Tantra
The best of the four tantras.
Diamond Path
The Diamond Path is a system of Buddhism. It's what uses the tantras.
mandala
A circular art system use by Hindu and Buddhist religious art. A quartered circle with a smaller circle in the center, like those handheld "Simon Says" games.
Six Bardos
The six intermediate states between birth and nirvana/reincarnation. Tibetan Buddhism says there are six, and the first one encapsulates birth to death
Yama
The Hindu god of death. Buddhism later adopted him also
Bhava Cakra
Symbolic representation of the cycle of life and death that all beings participate in. According to Buddhists, the Buddha himself designed it
delog
To journey to the realms beyond death.
Caring burials
When a dead body is buried and its clear the living showed care for the person dead. There's proof the Neanderthals did this.
ossuary
A chest, building, well, or site made to serve as the final resting place for lots and lots of human skeletal remains. Used when there isn't much space available to bury generations of dead.
mana
The concept of an impersonal force or quality that resides in people. The precursor to the concept of religion, it's popularly interpreted as "the stuff of which magic is formed."