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A n P LAB exam 4 Part 8

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tunic(s) of capillaries tunica interna
tunica interna
bulky middle tunic contains smooth muscle and elastin tunica media
tunica media
its smooth surface decreases resistance to blood flow tunica interna
tunica interna
tunic(s) of arteries and veins
tunica interna; tunica media; tunica externa
tunic that is especially thick in elastic arteries
tunica media
the arterial system has one of these; the venous system has two
brachiocephalic
these arteries supply the myocardium
coronary
two paired arteries serving the brain
internal carotid, vertebral
longest vein in the lower limb greater saphenous
greater saphenous
artery on the dorsum of the foot checked after leg surgery
dorsalis pedis
serves the posterior thigh deep femoral
deep femoral
supplies the diaphragm
phrenic
formed by the union of the radial and ulnar arteries brachial artery
brachial artery
2 superficial veins of the arms basilic; cephalic
basilic; cephalic
artery pair serving the kidney
renal arteries
veins draining the liver
right and left hepatic veins
artery that supplies the distal half of the large intestine via several branches
inferior mesenteric
drains the pelvic organs
internal iliac
what the external iliac artery becomes on entry into the thigh
femoral
major artery serving the arm
brachial
supplies most of the small intestine
superior mesenteric
join to form the inferior vena cava
common iliac
an arterial trunk that has three major branches, which run to the liver, spleen and stomach
celiac trunk
major artery serving the tissues external to the skull
external carotid
three veins serving the leg
fibular; anterior tibial; posterior tibial
artery generally used to take the pulse at the wrist
radial
The hepatic portal vein is formed by the union of which 2 veins?
splenic vein and superior mesenteric
What 3 organs does the splenic vein drain?
spleen, pancreas and greater curvature of stomach
What 2 organs does the superior mesenteric drain?
small intestine and ascending colon
Which vein drains the lesser curvature of the stomach and empties directly into the hepatic portal vein?
gastric vein
What 2 paired arteries enter the skull to supply the brain?
internal carotids and vertebral arteries
What name is given to the communication network that has branches of the internal carotids and the vertebral arteries that cooperate to form a ring of blood vessels encircling the pituitary gland at the base of the brain?
Circle of Willis
What part of the brain is served by the anterior and middle cerebral arteries?
cerebrum
Both the anterior and middle cerebral arteries arise from the internal _____ arteries?
carotid
Which blood vessels have intimate contact with the tissue cells?
capillaries
Why do veins have valves but arteries dont?
Skeletal muscle "milking action" and changes in thoracic cavity pressure during breathing
What are artery walls proportionately thicker than those of the corresponding veins?
Arteries must withstand high pressure and veins dont
What do the pulmonary arteries carry and to where?
oxygen-poor blood to the lungs
What do the pulmonary veins carry and to where?
oxygen-rich blood to the left heart
What do most arteries carry?
oxygen-rich blood
What do most veins carry?
oxygen-poor blood
What is the exception to the fact that most arteries carry oxygen rich blood?
the pulmonary arteries
What is the exception to the fact that most veins carry oxygen poor blood?
the pulmonary veins
How do the arteries of the pulmonary circulation differ structurally from the systemic arteries?
The pulmonary arteries are more like veins anatomically with relatively thin walls, as the pulmonary circulation is a low pressure bed
What is the source of blood in the hepatic portal system?
blood drained from the digestive viscera
Why is the hepatic portal blood carried to the liver b4 it enters the systemic circulation?
BC it is rich in nutrients and the liver is responsible for maintaining proper blood concentrations of glucose, proteins, etc. and its phagocytes rid the body of debris
What is the function of the circle of Willis?
Provides an alternate set of pathways for blood to reach brain tissue in case of impaired blood
What is the first branch of the aortic arch?
brachiocephalic trunk
What is the largest artery of the body?
the aorta
Which artery divides to form an internal carotid artery which serves the brain, and an external carotid artery?
common carotid artery
What artery supplies the extracranial tissues of the neck and head via its superficial temporal, ophthalmic, maxillary, facial, and occipital arterial branches?
the external carotid artery
Which artery serves the cerebellum, part of the brain stem and the posterior cerebral hemispheres?
vertebral artery
What artery serves the upper limb?
axillary artery
The brachial artery subdivides into which 2 arteries, which supply the forearm and hand?
radial and ulnar arteries
Which artery supplies the stomach?
left gasric artery
Which artery supplies the spleen?
splenic artery
Which artery supplies the stomach via the right gastric artery,and the duodenum, and pancreas?
common hepatic artery
Which artery serves the liver?
hepatic artery proper
What is the largest branch of the abdominal aorta and supplies most of the small intestine via the intestinal arteries and the 1st half of the large intestine ?
superior mesenteric artery
Which arteries divides from the descending aorta and serves the pelvis, lower abdominal wall and the lower limbs?
2 large common iliac arteries
What artery supplies the gluteal muscles via the superior and inferior gluteal arteries and the adductor muscles of the medial thigh, and the external genitalia ?
the internal iliac artery
What artery supplies the anterior abdominal wall and the lower limb?
the external iliac artery
Which arteries that divide off from the popliteal artery supply the leg and foot?
the anterior and posterior tibial arteries
______ is the sound which marks the approximate beginning of systole, and is created when the increase in intraventricular pressure during contraction exceeds the pressure within the atria, causing a sudden closing of the tricuspid and mitral, or AV valves. "lub"
"lub"
What sound is produced at the end of systole, the ventricles begin to relax, the pressures within the heart become less than that in the aorta and pulmonary artery, and a brief back flow of blood causes the semilunar valves to snap shut?
"dup"
What are the only arteries (other than umbilical arteries in the fetus) that carry deoxygenated blood and where do they originate?
pulmonary arteries, branches of pulmonary trunk
What arteries serve the adrenal glands and flank the superior mesenteric artery?
suprarenal arteries
4 pairs of _____ arteries arise from the posterolateral surface of the aorta just below the inferior mesenteric artery and supply the posterior abdominal wall (lumbar region)
lumbar arteries
The anterior tibial artery supplies the extensor muscles and terminates with what artery?
dorsalis pedis artery
Where are arteries generally located within the body?
in deep, well-protected body areas
Where are veins generally located within the body?
more superficially
Where do the major systemic arteries branch from?
the aorta
Where do most veins tend to converge from?
the venae cavae
Veins draining the head and upper exremities empty into what?
superior vena cava
Veins draining the lower part of the body empty into what? i
inferior vena cava
Where does the inferior vena cava begin?
with the union of the paired common iliac veins
Each common iliac vein is formed by the union of which 2 veins and receives venous blood from the lower limb?
the internal iliac vein and the external iliac vein
The popliteal vein becomes which vein in the thigh? f
femoral vein
Which vein drains into the inferior vena cava?
the right suprarenal vein
Which vein drains into the left renal vein?
the left suprarenal vein
What is the special vessel called where the unpaired veins draining the digestive tract organs empty and carry blood to the liver b4 it enters the systemic venous system?
hepatic portal vein
Which paired veins drain the head, neck and upper extremities and unit to form the superior vena cava?
right and left brachiocephalic veins
The jugular, vertebral and subclavian veins are included in the branches of which veins?
brachiocephalic veins
What large veins drain the superior sagittal sinus and other dural sinuses of the brain?
internal jugular veins
Which veins receive venous blood from the upper extremity?
subclavian veins
What does the subclavian vein becomes once it traverses the axilla?
the axillary vein
Which 3 veins superficially drain the arm?
the basilic vein, the cephalic vein, and the median cubital vein
Which vein is the site of choice for drawing blood?
median cubital vein
How does the pulmonary circulation system differ from the systemic circulation?
It doesn't serve the metabolic needs of the body tissues w/which it is associated (in this case, lung tissue) Instead if brings blood into close contact w/alveoli of lungs to perm,it gas exchanges that rid blood of excess CO2 and replenish oxygen supply
In what way are the arteries of the pulmonary circulation similar to veins?
structurally, and they create a low-pressure bed in the lungs
What arteries provide the functional blood supply of the lungs and diverge from the thoracic portion of the descending aorta?
bronchial arteries
What occurs across the walls of the alveoli and pulmonary capillaries? d
diffusion
Blood vessels of what drain the digestive viscera, spleen, and pancreas and deliver this blood to the liver for processing via the hepatic portal vein?
the hepatic portal circulation
Which vein drains the distal portions of the large intestine, joins the splenic vein, which drains the spleen and part of the pancreas and stomach?
inferior mesenteric vein
Which vein, which drains the lesser curvature of the stomach, drains directly into the hepatic portal vein?
the left gastric vein
What carries blood rich in nutrients and oxygen to the fetus?
umbilical vein
What carries carbon dioxide and waste-laden blood from the fetus to the placenta?
umbilical artery
What is the shunt vessel called that most blood is ducted thru the relatively nonfunctional liver to the inferior vena cava in a fetus and carries the blood to the right atrium of the heart?
ductus venosus
What is the name of the 2 shunts that ensures blood almost entirely bypasses the lungs in a fetus?
foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus
What is the only fetal vessel that carries highly oxygenated blood?
umbilical vein
At birth, what does the foramen ovale become?
fossa ovalis
What is the ductus arteriosus converted to after it collapses at birth?
fibrous ligamentum arteriosum
What is another name for the cerebral arterial circle in the brain?
Circle of Willis
Which arteries contribute to the formation of the cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) at the base of the brain?
internal carotid arteries
At the base of the cerebrum, the basilar artery divides to form which arteries?
posterior cerebral arteries
What arteries supply portions of the temporal and occipital lobes of the cerebrum and become part of the cerebral arterial circle by joining w/the posterior communicating arteries?
posterior cerebral arteries
Are the AV valves closed or open during ventricular systole?
closed
ARe the AV valves open or closed during atrial contraction and ventricular diastole or relaxation?
open
The AV valves are open within the heart when ventricular pressure is lower or higher than atrial pressure?
lower
The AV valves close within the heart when ventricular pressure is higher or lower than atrial pressure?
higher
The semilunar valves open when ventricular pressure is greater or lower than pressure in the great arteries?
greater
The semilunar valves close when ventricular pressure is lower or higher than pressure in the great arteries?
lower
Are both sets of valves closed during any part of the cycle?
Yes
Are both sets of valves open during any part of the cycle?
No
During the cardiac cycle, pressure in the heart is highest or lowest at the point of ventricular contraction?
highest
During the cardiac cycle, pressure in the heart is highest or lowest at the point of ventricular relaxation?
lowest
The first heart sound is a result of closure of what?
the atrioventricular valves
The second heart sound is a result of closure of what?
the semilunar valves
The heart chambers that have just been filled when you hear the first heart sound are what?
the ventricles
Immediately after the second heart sound, the what are filling with blood?
atria
Immediately after the second heart sound, the the what are empty?
ventricles
What is the difference called between an apical pulse and an arterial pulse?
pulse deficit