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100 terms

Socialolgy

tgrt
STUDY
PLAY
The process by which people act and react in relation to others ia called
social interaction
Which of the following concepts defines who and what we are in relations to others?
role set
Sociologists use which of the following concepts to refer to the behavior people expect of someone who holds a particular status?
role
Tanya is an excellent artist and enjoys her work, but feels she cannot devote enough time to her family. She is experiencing
role strain
Which of the following is involved when a plant supervisor wishes to be a good friend and hang out with the workers, but must also keep a personal distance to remain objective in order to asses the workers performance?
role conflict
Flirting is a way of seeing if someone if interested in you without risking rejection, From this perspective flirting insists
the social construction of reality
Which of the following is likely to play a part in the reality we construct through social interaction?
all of the above
The concept "presentation of self" refers to
efforts to create impressions in the minds of others
The careful observer can notice clues that someone is being deceptive. People give off these clues because
nonverbal communication is hard for most people to control
Smiling and making polite remarks to people we do not like is an example of
idealizing a personal performance
Women often take the family name of the man they marry. In sociological terms, this is an example of how language can be used to convey
power over others
The english language often treats as___ whatever has greater value, greater power, or greater significance
masculine
Looking at humor from a structural-functional viewpoint, jokes
all of the above
From a social-conflict point of view, jokes
all of the above
Which of the following best describes a "well-told" joke
The unconvential social defintion of a reality given at first, followed by the conventional definition of the reality
Arlie Hochschild's research shows that many companies
try to regulate and control both the behavior and emotions of employees
Which of the following are documented as emotions found all over world
happiness sadness, anger and fear
In terms of dramaturgical analysis, helping another person to "save face" or avoid, embarrassment is called
tact
Personal space is refers to
the surrounding area inwhich an individual makes some claim of privacy
The power relationship between physician an patient is immediately evident when the patient enters the doctor's office because
the patient must wait until a gatekeeper admits them to see the doctor in the office's "back region"
What do sociologists call two of more people who identify with an interact with one another
social group
Imagine you are watching several dozen passengers in an airport gate area waiting to board a plane. these people are an example of
crowd
The assembled students at a college graduation ceremony are a
secondary group
Which of the following is the best example of a primary group
carpenters gathering at a worksite
Which of the following is the best example of a secondary group
a family sharing a meal with their neighbors
You are part of a task force with a group leader who has a distant relationship with group members and who is concerned with getting the job done. which typ of leader is he
Instrumental leadership
In your group the leader is skillful at using humor to reduce tension and to lighten serious moments. which typ of leader is he
expressive leader
Which leadership style takes charge of making decisions and makes sure people do what they are told
authoritarian
Jordan is a leader who tends to downplay her position and power, allowing the group to function more or less on its own. which type of leader is she
laissez-faire
Which of the following illustrates the operation of "groupthink"
a group seeks consenus and discourages members from speaking freely, resulting in the group making a poor decision
Jake is a member of the bulldogs soccer team. his team's main rival is the tiges. members of the bulldogs put down the tigers all the time. the tigers represent
an outgroup
If you were a prisoner, a maximum security prison would be which of the following types of organization from your point of view
a coercive organization
From the point of view of parents, what type of organization is a school's parent teacher association (PTA)
a normative organization
The emergency room clerk who keeps a bleeding patient waitign while filling out extensive paperwork is a classic example of
bureaucratic alienation
Which of the following is evidence of the "mcdonldizaion of society"
the spread of local food movement
As bureaucracy and computer technology have spread throughout U.S society, privacy
has no legal protection at all
Looking at the list below, all but one of the traits is correctly linked to mcdonaldization. which is not one of the principles of mcdonaldization
creativity
What leadership traits have been discribed as making up a "female advantage"
all of the above
In his "iron law of oligarchy" robert michaels stated that bureaucracy always means
the few rule the many
What is robert mertons term for focusing so much on roles and regulations that the organization cannot accomplish its goals
bureaucratic ritualism
Ravi was born into a caste system in a small village in sri lanka. he can expect to
maintain the same social standing as his parents
A college professor who has advanced degrees, modeate salary an little power can be describe as having
high status consistency
The belief that social inequality is fair because social position reflects personal talent and effort is an ideology that is
most widely found in classless societies
A fair criticism of the davis moore thesis is the fact that
it is not so easy to assess the social importance of various jobs
following karl marxs analysis, we would expect to find alienation among which category of people
the working people, or proletariat
Olga works as a regional manager for a small corpation. which of the following categories correctly describes her work
white collar
to impress her friends, laura wears an expensive dress to a party. a sociologist might suggest she is engaging in
conspicuous consumption
being in the upper-upper class is usually the result of ___ being in the lower upper class is more a matter of
birth;achievement
In general, people in the __ tend to be less tolerant of homos
upper-upper class
Gena and her husband mark are married and have a low social position. we could expect them
to engage in somewhat different, gender based everyday activities
globalization of the economy has especially hurt which catergory of the US population
factory workers
in 20008 ___ people were consumed by the government as having income below the official poverty line
39.8 million
In terms of absolute numbers, most poor people in the united states are
white
Sociologist william julius wilson suggests the cause of poverty lies in
too few available jobs
the 1996 welfare reform in the US
greatly reduced the welfare rolls but did little to change the poverty rate
Conservative people supporting the welfare argue that the (pre1996) system
was creating welfare depenency
Liberal critics of the welfare reform argued that
few families who turn to welfare are truly needy
The lastest data show that welfare reform has
cut the number of households receiving welfare by about half
Read the following statements about social mobility in the US. which statement is correct
the global economy has increased the number of high-paying, industrial jobs avaiable in this country
which of the following factors tends to raise your social standing
marry and stay married
the concept of gender refers to
the personal trait an social positions that members of a society attach to being female and male
Margaret mead's research on gender in three societies supports the conclusion that
societies may define both "masculine" and "feminine" differently
Based on george murocks global study of gender, we should conclude that
most societies do not assign work to one sex or another
Drawing on janet lers observations of children at play, which of the following would you conclude was true
boys favor games with clear winners and losers
Which of the following is an important exception to male domination of the US workplace
women are now the majority of countrys college and university
In which of the following nations do women have the greatest political power relative to men
united states
sexual harassment is an important social issue because
half of the working women report receiving unwanted sexual attention
intersection theory focuses on
the interplay of race class and gender often leading to multiple disadvantages
If you could en violence against women in one setting, which of the following would reduce this type of violence the most
the home
which of the following statements is the best reason to view women as a minority in the US
at every level, women have less income wealth education and power than men do
Which of the following concepts refers to an invisiable, yet real barrier that prevents many women from rising beyond middle-management positons
glass ceiling
Which factor accounts for the largest share of difference in the earnings of working women and men in the US
differences in the education
The concept "comparable worth" refers to the idea that
women should receive the same pay as men for work that is equally important
which of the following statments about gender and housework is correct
among employed people, married or not, with or without children women do most of the housework
pinkcolla work refers to what type of job
administrative support
which of the following factors has been a cause of the rising share of women in the US paid labor force during the last century
the rising divorce rate
the "beauty myth" refrs to the idea that
women learn to measure their personal importance in terms of physical appearance
What share of today's US women are working for income
30 percent
in the US, the costs of sexism for men include
engaging in many high-risk behaviors
which of the following concepts refers to attitudes and activities that a society links to people of each sex
gender roles
A family leaves russia and takes up residence in the US, WHERE THEy gradually lose their russian cultural traditions. they have modified their
ethnicity
read the following statements about minorities, which statemnt is not correct
all people in a minority category are socially disadvantaged
You would be expressing "Sterotype" if you
stated an exaggerated description and applied it to everyone in the some category
recent research on social distance among US college students shows that
students are more accepting of minorities than they were decades ago
Based on the scapegoat theory, you would conclude that prejudice is caused by
frustration among people who are themselves disadvantaged
Thomas sowell studied the intelligence (IQ) scores of categories of people and conclude that
cultural patterns explain much IQ variation
Which of the following represents a culture theory of prejudice
Emory bogardus research on social distance
Institutional prejudice and discrimation refers to the fact that
bias is built into the operation of societys institutions
the idea that prejudice and discrimination form a vicious circle leads to the conclusion that
prejudice is more common than actual discrimination
which of the following situations is not an example of institutional discimination
a mother wants her child to stay away from schoolmates of a different race
Assimilation refers to the pattern by which
minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture
the matsui family came to the US thirty years ago. they now speak english at home and the children date non-japanese students at college. this family's story is closet to which of the following concepts
assimilation
the killing of people in the darfur region of africa is a recent example of
genocide
The rate of small business ownership is high among the asian ameicans. this pattern reflects
cultural values including achievement and self-reliance
what gunnar myrdal called the american dilemma was
the denial of basic rights by a so-called "democratic society" to african americans
The hispanic population of the US is
mainly concentrated in the southwest
read the following statements about arabs and muslims. which statement is not correct
arab and muslim means the samething
most immigrants to the US today come from
latin american and asia
douglas massy and nancy denton documented which of the following patterns in US inner cities
hypersegregation
multiculturalists oppose the goal of assimilation because
this suggests that minorities are the ones who need to do all the changing