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Biology Study Guide
Terms in this set (63)
Draw and label the parts of the cell cycle.
List several reasons why cells divide mitotically (through mitosis).
replicate cell,to replace dying and old cells,surface area to volume ratio higher, to make proteins
List the 4 phases of mitosis and give a brief summary of each phase.
prophase-genetic info inside nucleas condenses and duplicated chromosomes become visible, spindels start to form, metaphase(MEET)-centromeres of the duplicate chromosome line up across center of cellspindel fibers connect the cnetromere of chromosomes to 2 poles of spindle, anaphase-chromosomes seperate and move along spindle fibers to opposite ends of cell,
telephase-chromosomes being to spread out into a tangle of chromatin
How many cells result from mitosis? How many chromosomes does each cell contain compared to the original parent cell?
2 dipliod cells
Label parts A and B on the above chromosome
What type of cells undergo meiosis?
Mitosis results in what type of daughter cells being produced?
Meiosis results in what type of daughter cells being produced?
What are sex cells called?
Differentiate between diploid and haploid.
diploid- contain the complete set of necessary chromosomes
haploid- only half the number of chromosomes found in the nucleus
What is crossing over and when does it occur during meiosis?
crossing over- the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes
What is a tetrad and when does it form during meiosis?
a group of four chromatids formed from each of a pair of homologous chromosomes that split longitudinally during prophase of meiosis
What does it mean for a trait to be dominant or recessive?
dominant- that one of the versions trumps the other (upper case letter)
recessive- (lower case letter)
Summarize Mendel's three laws:
The law of independent assortment, the law of segregation, and the law of dominance
The law of independent assortment- stating two or more characteristics are inherited, individual hereditary factors assort independently during gamete production, giving different traits on equal opportunity of occurring together.
The law of segregation- states that allele pairs separate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization.
The law of dominance- the principle stating that one factor in a pair of traits dominates the other in inheritance unless both factors in the pairs are recessive.
Differentiate between phenotype and genotype
phenotype-physical trait, genotype-genetic trait
If a coin is flipped four times, what is the probability that the coin will be heads four times in a row?
What is an autosomal trait? What about a sex-linked trait?
autosomal- a gene on one of the non-sex chromosomes that is always expressed, even if only one copy is present
sex-linked trait- genetic characteristics determined by genes, which are located on sex chromosomes
Differentiate between Codominance, incomplete dominance, and simple dominance.
codominance- relationship between two versions of a gene.
incomplete dominance- is a form of intermediate inheritance in which one allele for a specific trait is not completely expressed over its paired allele.
simple dominance- occurs when an inherited trait is coded for by a single gene, and that gene has two versions.
What is a pedigree and why are they important?
pedigree- a diagram that shows the occurrence and apperance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next.
How can you tell if a trait is sex-linked or autosomal on a pedigree?
if most of the males in the pedigree are affected the disorder is sex-linked/ if it is a 50/50 ratio between men and women disorder is autosomal
How can you tell if a trait is dominant or recessive on a pedigree?
if the disorder is dominant, one of the parents must have the disorder/ if the disorder is recessive, neither parent has to have the disorder because they can be heterozygous
Be able to complete monohybrid and dihybrid Punnett Squares.
just be able complete them!
How many chromosomes are in a human karyotype?
Is colorblindness a result of a dominant or recessive trait? Is it found on the X or Y chromosome?
recessive trait/ X chromosome
XX represents a ________________ while XY represents a _____________.
Summarize Darwin's theory of natural selection.
natural selection, any characteristic of an individual that allows it to survive to produce more offspring will eventually appear in every individual of the species, simply because those members will have more offspring.
change in heritable traits of biological populations over successive generations
What is artificial selection? How does it differ from natural selection?
What is a fossil?
fossils-preserved remains or traces of ancient life. most found in sedimentary rock layer
How did finches on the Galapagos islands influence Darwin's ideas about Evolution by Natural Selection? What did he notice about the finches? Why was this significant?
finches helped him relaize that characteristics and plants varied noticeably among the different islands and the finches had a beak best fit for its environment and diet yet similar to mainisland finch
Describe Lamarck's ideas on evolution. What things did Lamarck believe that we now know to be incorrect?
tendency towards perfection
1. organisms dont have an inborn drive to become more perfect.
2. Evolution does not mean that over time a species become "better" somehow, and evolution does not progress in a predetermined direction.
How did Malthus contribute to Darwin's Theory of Evolution?
wrote an essay on the principle of population, Malthus predicts that left unchecked, the human population will grow beyond the space and food needed to sustain it.
What is meant by fitness?
how fit you, hwo well you can survive in an enironment to an age to reproduce
What is a homologous structure and why do they exist?
structures that are similar in different species of common ancestry/ existence of homologous structures adapted to different purposes as the result of descent with modification from a common ancestor.
What is a vestigial structure and how does it differ from a homologous structure?
a vestigial structure is a structure that is inherited from ancestors but has lost much or all of its original function
What is an adaptation?
heritable characteristics that increases an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in an environment
How did Linneaus classify organisms? What system did he use to name organisms?
Linnaeus is the father of taxonomy, which is domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species/ taxonomy
What is a cladogram and what information does it display?
a branching diagram showing the cladistic relationship between a number of species
What is binomial nomenclature and who is credited with naming it?
classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name/ Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus
What is the difference between binomial nomenclature and systematics?
Systematics is the science and practice of classification.
Binomial nomenclature is the formal system of naming specific species.
From Kingdom to Species, list the levels of the Linnaean Classification System.
kingdom; phylum; class; order; family; species; genus
Binomial Nomenclature uses which two levels of classification? Give an example of how to write the scientific name.
What is phylogeny?
phylogeny, the history of the evolution of a species or group, especially in reference to lines of descent and relationships among broad groups of organisms.
What is a clade and why must it be monophyletic?
Monophyletic taxon : A group composed of a collection of organisms, including the most recent common ancestor of all those organisms and all the descendants of that most recent common ancestor. A monophyletic taxon is also called a clade.
What is a cladogram?
a branching diagram showing the cladistic relationship between a number of species.
What is the significance of using derived characters during cladistics analysis?
Name the 3 Domains and 5 Kingdoms that were later used for classification.
What are the names for a rod shaped bacteria, a spiral shaped bacteria and a spherical shaped bacteria?
What is conjugation?
The type of reproduction where the bacterial cells exchange genetic material across a hollow bridge
How do bacteria reproduce?
What about a decomposer?
Help breakdown dead material to be recycled by the environment
Name as many ways as you can think of that humans rely on bacteria
-make food (cheese, beer)
-make medicine to fight diseases
-fights oil spills
Differentiate between Lytic and Lysogenic viruses
Lytic- "hi-jacks your cell and destroys it, makes copies of itself"
Lysogenic- merges with the cell but doesn't destroy it, no symptoms
List several viral infections and bacterial infections
Viral- Ebola, measles, herpes
Bacteria- strep, pneumonia, gonnorea
Describe or draw the main parts of a bacteria
What can be done to prevent viral infections? What can be done to prevent bacterial infections?
What is a pathogen?
a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease.
How do bacteria cause disease?
To cause disease, these micro-organisms must gain access to the body. Bacteria reproduce by splitting in two, while viruses replicate themselves inside host cells. Many bacterial infections can be treated successfully with antibiotics, but these are useless against viral infections.
What characteristics do all animals share?
multicellular, eukaryotic heterotrophs whose cells lack cell walls.
Differentiate between an invertebrate and vertebrate and give an example of each.
Invertebrates don't have a vertebrate (ex. Starfish)
Vertebrate- have vertebrates (ex. Mammals)
What traits do all chordates share?
-a dorsal hollow nerve cord.
Explain the 4 essential functions that all animals must perform in order to survive?
What is homeostasis?
The tendency of an organism or a cell to regulate its internal conditions, usually by a system of feedback controls, so as to stabilize health and functioning, regardless of the outside changing conditions
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