APUSH Chapter 14 : Forging the National Economy, 1790-1860
Terms in this set (24)
Ancient Order of Hibernians
Irish Catholic Fraternal Organization that required members to be Catholic and either Irish born or of Irish descent. Its purpose was to act as guards to protect Catholic Churches from anti-Catholic forces in the mid 19th century, and to assist Irish Catholic immigrants, especially those who faced discrimination or harsh coal mining working conditions.
A Irish miner's union that was established in Pennsylvania during the 1860s and 1870s; tens of thousands of Irish were forced to flee their homeland during the potato famine, but were not welcomed in America, who regarded them as a social menace and competition for jobs; forced to fend for themselves, they banded together to improve their social, financial, and political situation.
Tammany Hall was powerful New York political organization. It drew support from immigrants. The immigrants relied on Tammany Hall patronage, particularly for social services. This is significant in that it gave immigrants rights to vote.
German immigrant who fought for political freedom in his home country, and against slavery and unfair treatment of the Native Americans in America. nineteenth-century. He thought he knew everything about America until he got here and found out there was no freedom at all because there wasn't any freedom of speech. After 10 years in America, Lincoln then names him american minister to Spain, then serves as a general in the union army, newspaper correspondent, an editor, a U.S senator from Missouri, and the secretary of the interior.
Movement based on hostility to immigrants; motivated by ethnic tensions and religious bias; considered immigrants as despots overthrowing the American republic; feared anti-Catholic riots and competition from low-paid immigrant workers
Order of the Star-Spangled Banner
Order of the Star-Spangled Banner was an oath-bound secret society in NYC created by Charles Allen in 1849 to protest the rise of the Irish, Roman Catholic, and German immigration into the U.S. They were also known as the "Know-nothings" because they kept the society a secret.
1815-1850; transition from small shops of hand-made goods to factories & mills powered by water; the first industrial labor force consisted of single girls in New England textile mills such as the Lowell Mills; accompanied by revolutions in transportation and the market economy
He was a British mechanic that moved to America and in 1791 invented the first American machine for spinning cotton. He is known as "the Father of the Factory System" and he started the idea of child labor in America's factories.
He was a mechanical genius that graduated from Yale.While in Georgia he was told that the South would make a lot of money if someone could invent a machine to separate the seed from cotton. In 1793, within ten days of being told this, Whitney had constructed a rough machine fifty times more effective than the handpicking process.
A machine that would separate the seed from the short-staple cotton fiber that was fifty times more effective than the handpicking process. It was constructed by Eli Whitney. It was developed in 1793 in Georgia.
Made in 1846 by Elias Howe; made making clothing faster and cheaper
The liability of a firm's owners for no more than the capital they have invested in the firm. A form of business ownership in which the owners are liable only up to the amount of their individual investments.
Boston Associates/ General Incorporation Law
The Boston Associates were an early group of Boston businessmen who dominated the textile, railroad, insurance and banking business in the 1800s. They built the first power loom. In 1814 in Waltham; Massachusetts; they opened a factory run by Lowell. Their factory made cloth so cheaply that women began to buy it rather than make it themselves, encouraging the start of the industrial and consumer revolution.
An American inventor who invented the telegraph in 1844. He late helped developed what is now known as the Morse Code.
Commonwealth vs. Hunt
A landmark ruling of the MA supreme court establishing the legality of labor unions and the legality of union workers striking if an employer hired non-union workers. Case heard by the Massachusetts supreme court. The case was the first judgement in the U.S. that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal. Also decided that unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of their members.
The unmarried daughter of a famous preacher and sister of Harriet Beecher Stowe. She urged women to enter into the teaching profession
cult of domesticity
Widespread cultural creed that glorified the traditional functions of the homemaker around 1850. Married women commanded immense moral power, and they increasingly made decisions that altered the family. Work opportunities for women increased particularly in teaching.
Irish-American inventor that developed the mechanical reaper. The reaper replaced scythes as the preferred method of cutting crops for harvest, and it was much more efficient and much quicker. The invention helped the agricultural growth of America.
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship
Steamboat. Fulton's steamboat in 1807 which was powered on by a newly designed engine. it took the Clermont 32 hours to go 150 miles from New York to Albany.
American boats, built during the 1840's in Boston that were sleek and fast but inefficient in carrying a lot of cargo or passengers. Unequaled in speed and were used for trade, especially for transporting perishable products from distant countries like China and between the eastern and western United States.
Carried mail speedily the two-thousand lonely miles from St. Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, California. Daring, lightweight riders, leaping onto wiry ponies saddled at stations approximately ten miles apart, could make the trip in an amazing ten days.
The beginning of better transportation ways in America including the steamboat, train, and better roads and canals
Governor of New York who started the Erie canal project. His leadership helped complete the canal, which boosted the economy greatly by cutting time traveled from west New York to the Hudson.
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