100 terms

Biology Semester 2 Final Study Guide

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Hypothesis
idea that can be tested
Thesis
hypothesis that has been tested multiple times and is supported
Control
unchanged variable
Independent Variable
factor in an experiment that the scientist purposely changes
Dependent Variable
factor in an experiment that the scientist wants to observe
Polar Molecules
slightly negative and positive, bonds well with itself and other molecules
Prokaryote
unicellular organism lacking a nucleus
Eukaryote
contains a nucleus
Autotroph
makes it's own food
Heterotroph
obtains food from other sources
Mitochondria
powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP production
Golgi Apparatus
packages and distributes proteins from the ER
Cell Membrane
thin, flexible barrier surrounding the cell that regulates what enters and leaves
Vacuole
stores water, salts, proteins, and carbs
Cytoplasm
soupy portion outside the nucleus
Lysosome
cleaner, breaks down lipids, carbs, and protein
Edoplasm Reticulum
rough- ribosomes
smooth- lipids
Centriole
near the nucleus, organizes cell devision, only found in animal cells
Chloroplasts
capture energy from sunlight and convert it to chemical energy in photosynthesis
Nucleus
contains genetic material in the form of DNA
Nucleolis
contained within the nucleus, where the assembly of ribosomes begins
Chromosomes
contain genetic info. passed on from generation to generation
Chromatin
granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins
Nuclear Envelope
layer of two membranes that surrounds the nucleus of a cell
Cell Wall
strong layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria
Ribosome
small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein
Fitness
ability to survive and reproduce in a specific environment
Gene Pool
all genes and alleles present in a population
Mutations
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
Speciation
formation of a new species
Genetic Equilibrium
allele frequencies remain constant
Half- Life
length of time required for half the radioactive atoms in a sample decay
Fist Life on Earth
4.6 billion years ago
Punctuated Equilibrium
long periods are interrupted by brief periods of change
Gradulism
new species originates through gradual build up of adaptations
Divergent Evolution
species adapt to diff. environmental condition begin to change and become less similar
Coevolution
a species evolve in response to changes in each other over time
Homologous Structures
same structure, different function
Analogous Structures
same function, different structure
Vestigial Structures
unused structures
Phylogenic Tree
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
Taxonomy
the science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms
Binomial Nomenclature
2 naming system
Dichotomous Key
a key for the identification of organisms based on a series of choices between alternative characters
Phylogeny
the evolutionary history of an organism
Carolus Linnaeus
developed binomial nomenclature and the method of classification, taxonomy
Kingdom Monera
prokaryotes, bacteria, some photosynthesize, H/A
Kingdom Protista
live around water, eukaryotes, don't fit into any other kingdom
Kingdom Fungus
live in moist, warm, dark areas, eukaryote, heterotrophs
Kingdom Plantae
eukaryote, multicellular, autotrophic, all cellular walls made of cellulose
Kingdom Animalia
eukaryote, multicellular, heterotroph, no cell walls
Communities
populations living together in a defined area
Populations
group of organisms of one type living in the same area
Biome
group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities
Biosphere
the part of earth where life exists
Food Chain
a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
Food Web
network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem
Consumers
Heterotrophs
Decomposers
Organisms that break down the dead remains of other organisms
Producers
autotrophs
Biotic Factor
biological influence on organisms within an ecosystem
Abiotic Factor
physical, or nonliving, factor that shapes an ecosystem
Trophic Levels
each step in a food chain or food web
Symbiosis
relationship where two species live closely together
Predition
one organism captures and feeds on another
DNA
3 component molecule made up of nucleotides
Homeostasis
organism keeps internal conditions stable
Diffusion
the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
Osmosis
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Active Transport
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy
Hypertonic
the solution with a higher concentration of solute
Hypotonic
having a lower concentration of solute than another solution
Isotonic
when the concentration of two solutions is the same
Spindle Fibers
helps separate the chromosomes during cell devision
Genetics
The scientific study of heredity
Gamete
specialized cell involved in sexual reproduction
Alleles
letter that reps a trait
Homozygous
identical alleles (TT, tt)
Heterozygous
different alleles (Tt, Bb)
Dominant
(T, B) capital letters more likely to occur
Recessive
(t, b) lowercase letters less likely to occur
Gene
coded DNA instructions
Replication
During DNA replication, the DNA molecule separates into 2 strands, then produces 2 new complementary strands following the rules of base paring before cells divide, DNA must be coded
Translation
DNA gets copied 2 RNA, Decoding of MRNA message into proteins, all uses information from the MRNA to make proteins
Transcription
RNA binds to DNA and separates the 2 strands, RNA uses DNA as a template from which nucleotides are assembled into a strand of RNA
Nucleotide
DNA is made up of these L shaped units
Codon
3 consecutive nucleotide that specify an single amino acid thats added to the polyopeptide
Anticodon
complimentary to MRNA codon
Cellular Respiration
breaks down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
Darwin
HMS beagle, Galapagos Islands, evolutionary theory, natural selection
Natural Selection
1. variation within all population
2. some variation are favorable for survival
3. not all young produced will survive
4. those that survive tend to be those with the favorable variations
Niche
habitat and role of a population
Habitat
the area where and organism lives
Estuary
area where fresh and salt water meet
Species
they can reproduce and produce fertile offspring
Geologic Time Scale
Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mezozoic, Cenazoic
Xylem
vascular tissue carrying water up from the roots to every part of the plant
Phloem
vascular tissue responsible for the transport of nutrients and carbs produced by photosynthesis
Hyphae
each individual filament
Mycellium
whole bundle of hyphae
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