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Light on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali: Kaivalya Pada by, B.K.S. Iyengar
Terms in this set (34)
IV.1 janma auṣadhi mantra tapaḥ samādhijāḥ siddhayaḥ
Accomplishments may be attained through birth, the use of herbs, incantations, self-discipline or samādhi.
IV.2 jātyantara pariṇāmaḥ prakṛtyāpūrāt
The abundant flow of nature's energy brings about a transformation in one's birth, aiding the process of evolution.
IV.3 nimittaṁ aprayojakaṁ prakṛtīnāṁ varaṇabhedaḥ tu tataḥ kṣetrikavat
nimittamaprayojakaṃ prakṛtīnāṃ varaṇabhedastu tataḥ kṣetrikavat
Nature's efficient cause does not impel its potentialities into action, but helps to remove the obstacles to evolution, just as a farmer builds banks to irrigate his fields.
IV.4 nirmāṇacittāni asmitāmātrāt
Constructed or created mind springs from the sense of individuality (asmitā).
IV.5 pravṛtti bhede prayojakaṁ cittaṁ ekaṁ anekeṣām
pravṛttibhede prayojakaṃ cittamekamanekeṣām
Consciousness is one, but it branches into many different types of activities and innumerable thought-waves.
IV.6 tatra dhyānajam anāśayam
Of these activities of consciousness of perfected beings, only those which proceed from meditation are free from latent impressions and influences.
IV.7 karma aśukla akṛṣṇam yoginaḥ trividham itareṣām
A yogi's actions are neither white nor black. The actions of others are of three kinds, white, black or grey.
IV.8 tataḥ tadvipāka anuguṇānām eva abhivyaktiḥ vāsanānām
These three types of actions leave impressions which become manifest when conditions are favourable and ripe.
IV.9 jāti deśa kāla vyavahitānām api ānantaryaṁ smṛti saṁskārayoḥ ekarūpatvāt
Life is a continuous process, even though it is demarcated by race, place and time. Due to the uninterrupted close relationship between memory and subliminal impressions, the fruits of actions remain intact from one life to the next, as if there were no separation between births.
IV.10 tāsām anāditvaṁ ca āśiṣaḥ nityatvāt
tāsāmanāditvaṃ cāśiṣo nityatvāt
The impressions, memories and desires have existed eternally, as the desire to live is eternal.
IV.11 hetu phala āśraya ālambanaiḥ saṅgṛhītatvāt eṣām abhāve tad abhāvaḥ
hetuphalāśrayālambanaiḥ saṃgṛhītatvādeṣāmabhāve tadabhāvaḥ
Impressions and desires are bound together by their dependence upon cause and effect. In the absence of the latter, the former too ceases to function.
IV.12 atīta anāgataṁ svarūpataḥ asti adhvabhedāt dharmāṇām
The existence of the past and the future is as real as that of the present. As moments roll into movements which have yet to appear as the future, the quality of knowledge in one's intellect and consciousness is affected.
IV.13 te vayakta sūkṣmāh guṇātmānaḥ
te vyaktasūkṣmā guṇātmānaḥ
The three phases of time intermingle rhythmically and interweave with the qualities of nature. They change the composition of nature's properties into gross and subtle.
IV.14 pariṇāma ekatvāt vastutattvam
Unity in the mutation of time caused by the abiding qualities of nature, sattva, rajas and tamas, causes modifications in objects, but their unique essence, or reality, does not change.
IV.15 vastusāmye cittabhedāt tayoḥ vibhaktaḥ panthāḥ
vastusāmye cittabhedāttayorvibhaktaḥ panthāḥ
Due to the variance in the quality of mind-content, each person may view the same object differently, according to his own way of thinking.
IV.16 na ca ekacitta tantraṁ ced vastu tat apramāṇakaṁ tadā kiṁ syāt
na caikacittatantraṃ vastu tadapramāṇakaṃ tadā kiṃ syāt
An object exists independent of its cognizance by any one consciousness. What happens to it when that consciousness is not there to perceive it?
IV.17 taduparāga apekṣitvāt cittasya vastu jñāta ajñātam
taduparāgāpekṣitvāccittasya vastu jñātājñātam
An object remains known or unknown according to the conditioning or expectation of the consciousness.
IV.18 sadā jñātaḥ cittavṛttayaḥ tatprabhoḥ puruṣasya apariṇāmitvāt
sadā jñātāścittavṛttayastatprabhoḥ puruṣasyāpariṇāmitvāt
Puruṣa is ever illuminative and changeless. Being constant and master of the mind, he always knows the moods and modes of consciousness.
IV.19 na tat svābhāsaṁ dṛśyatvāt
na tatsvābhāsaṃ dṛśyatvāt
Consciousness cannot illumine itself as it is a knowable object.
IV.20 ekasamaye ca ubhaya anavadhāraṇam
Consciousness cannot comprehend both the seer and itself at the same time.
IV.21 cittāntaradṛśye buddhibuddheḥ atiprasaṅgaḥ smṛtisaṅkaraḥ ca
cittāntaradṛśye buddhibuddheratiprasaṅgaḥ smṛtisaṅkaraśca
If consciousness were manifold in one's being, each cognizing the other, the intelligence too would be manifold, so the projections of mind would be many, each having its own memory.
IV.22 citeḥ apratisaṁkramāyāḥ tadākārāpattau svabuddisaṁvedanam
Consciousness distinguishes its own awareness and intelligence when it reflects and identifies its source - the changeless seer - and assumes his form.
IV.23 draṣṭṛ dṛśya uparaktaṁ cittaṁ sarvārtham
draṣṭṛdṛśyoparaktaṃ cittaṃ sarvārtham
Consciousness, reflected by the seer as well as by the seen, appears to be all-comprehending.
IV.24 tat asaṅkhyeya vāsanābhiḥ citram api parārthaṁ saṁhatyakāritvāt
tadasaṃkhyeyavāsanābhiścitramapi parārthaṃ saṃhatyakāritvāt
Though the fabric of consciousness is interwoven with innumerable desires and subconscious impressions, it exists for the seer on account of its proximity to the seer as well as to the objective world.
IV.25 viśeṣadarśinaḥ ātmabhāva bhāvanānivṛttiḥ
For one who realizes the distinction between citta and ātmā, the sense of separation between the two disappears.
IV.26 tadā vivekanimnaṁ kaivalya prāgbhāraṁ cittam
tadā vivekanimnaṃ kaivalyaprāgbhāraṃ cittam
The consciousness is drawn strongly towards the seer or the soul due to the gravitational force of its exalted intelligence.
IV.27 tat cchidreṣu pratayayāntarāṇi saṁskārebhyaḥ
tacchidreṣu pratyayāntarāṇi saṃskārebhyaḥ
Notwithstanding this progress, if one is careless during the interval, a fissure arises due to past hidden impressions, creating division between the consciousness and the seer.
IV.28 hānam eṣāṁ kleśavat uktam
In the same way as the sādhaka strives to be free from afflictions, the yogi must handle these latent impressions judiciously to extinguish them.
IV.29 prasaṁkhyāne api akusīdasya sarvathā vivekakhyāteḥ dharmameghaḥ samādhiḥ
prasaṃkhyāne'pyakusīdasya sarvathā vivekakhyāterdharmameghaḥ samādhiḥ
The yogi who has no interest even in this highest state of evolution, and maintains supreme attentive, discriminative awareness, attains dharmameghaḥ samādhi: he contemplates the fragrance of virtue and justice.
IV.30 tataḥ kleśa karma nivṛttiḥ
Then comes the end of afflictions and of karma.
IV.31 tadā sarva āvaraṇa malāpetasya jñānasya ānaṅtyāt jñeyam alpam
tadā sarvāvaraṇamalāpetasya jñānasyānantyājjñeyamalpam
The, when the veils of impurities are removed, the highest, subjective, pure, infinite knowledge is attained, and the knowable, the finite, appears as trivial.
IV.32 tataḥ kṛtārthānāṁ pariṇāmakrama samāptiḥ guṇānām
tataḥ kṛtārthānāṃ pariṇāmakramasamāptirguṇānām
When dharmameghaḥ samādhi is attained, qualities of nature (guṇas) come to rest. Having fulfilled their purpose, their sequence of successive mutations is at an end.
IV.33 kṣaṇa pratiyogī pariṇāma aparānta nirgrāhyaḥ kramaḥ
kṣaṇapratiyogī pariṇāmāparāntanirgrāhyaḥ kramaḥ
As the mutations of the guṇas cease to function, time, the uninterrupted movement of moments, stops. This deconstruction of the flow of time is comprehensible only at this final stage of emancipation.
IV.34 puruṣārtha śūnyānāṁ guṇānāṁ pratiprasavaḥ kaivalyaṁ svarūpapratiṣṭhā vā citiśaktiḥ iti
puruṣārthaśūnyānāṃ guṇānāṃ pratiprasavaḥ kaivalyaṃ svarūpapratiṣṭhā vā citiśaktiriti
Kaivalya, liberation, comes when the yogi has fulfilled the puruṣārthas, the fourfold aims of life, and has transcended the guṇas. Aims and guṇas return to their source, and consciousness is established in its own natural purity.