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Biology Final Exam 2015
Terms in this set (89)
Why is genetic engineering possible?
all organisms are based on the same genetic code
What organisms do scientists study when investigating the effect of turning off a gene?
gene knockout mice
Which technology uses electricity to sort DNA fragments based on their sizes?
What is the term used to describe DNA that has added genes from another species?
What is one of the main benefits of genetic engineering in plants?
increased disease resistance in crops
What is a plasmid?
circular pieces of bacterial DNA, can replicate independently, is used as a vector
Why is DNA fingerprinting used in criminal investigation?
to distinguish body cells of different individuals
Why have scientists yet to clone a human?
What is gene therapy?
transferring normal human genes into human cells that lack them
What is the general purpose of the Human Genome Project?
to sequence the genes in human DNA for scientific studies
What are some of the safety and ethical issues raised by genetic engineering?
clones that could act differently?
foods decrease diversity
Why is it advisable to use antibiotics only when absolutely necessary?
What is natural selection?
survival and reproduction of organisms that are genetically best adapted to the environment
What are vestigial structures?
the remnant of an organ that had a function in an ancestor
Individuals that are well adapted to their environment will survive and produce _________
How does natural selection result in change over time?
by acting on heritable traits
What are the main 2 sources of genetic variation?
When does reproductive isolation occur?
when members of different populations can no longer mate successfully
What is coevolution?
a process in which species evolve in response to changes in each other
What is a gene pool?
combined alleles of all individuals in a population
What are homologous structures?
structures that suggest that the organisms share a common ancestor; similar anatomy, different function
How did cyanobacteria change early Earth?
added oxygen to the atmosphere
What is biodiversity?
the number of different species in an ecosystem
Which organisms convert gaseous nitrogen into ammonia in the nitrogen cycle?
Which organisms provide most of the energy in ecosystems?
What is a keystone species?
an organism that has an unusually large effect on an ecosystem
How can omnivores be both primary and secondary consumers?
they eat plants and other animals
What are the 2 processes by which autotrophs can make food?
What would happen if a keystone species were to be removed from an ecosysytem?
abiotic and biotic factors would be affected
a zebra eating grass
What is the benefit of conduction a field experiment instead of a lab experiment?
gives more accurate picture of how species interact in nature
State the chemical equation for chemosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O +3H2S -> C6H12O6 + 3H2SO4
Explain niche partitioning
when 2 species compete for then divide the same resources
What are ecological equivalents?
when 2 species occupy similar niches in similar habitats in different parts of the world
What are the 3 types of population dispersion patterns?
uniform, random, clumped
What type of organisms would have a type 2 survivorship curve?
one that is preyed on throughout its life
List 4 density-dependent factors
competition, food, living space, disease
What is the difference between primary and secondary succession?
primary: moss... soil is created
secondary: grasses and wild flowers... soil is intact
Give an example of parasitism, mutualism, and commensialism:
algae & fungus
shark & fish that eat its leftovers
The layer of air surrounding the Earth is known as the ___________
How is climate different from weather?
climate is long term
What is a characteristic of the tropical rainforest?
most biodiverse biome
thin soil, low in nutrients
What are deciduous trees?
trees that drop leaves in cold season
Why are estuaries important in an ecosystem?
fish food, fish nurseries
What is an estuary?
body of water where fresh and salt water mix
Why do so few organisms live in the intertidal zone?
waves too strong, lack of nutrients
Which biome is completely treeless?
Which biome is populated almost entirely with coniferous trees?
Why is the Earth's carrying capacity continuously increasing?
improved medicine and technology
Why is all ozone not harmful?
stratosphere ozone is helpful
How would increasing biodiversity in an ecosystem change it?
increase ecosystem's stability
What could lead to a decrease in global warming?
decrease in methane and carbon dioxide
Why are humans less sensitive to pollutants in water than frogs?
frogs have water soluble skin
Which level of the food chain is most affected by biomagnification?
highest level, tertiary consumers
How can an umbrella species benefit other organisms?
protects other species in same environment
What causes acid rain?
burning fossil fuels
How did Carolus Linnaeus base his classification system?
similar physical characteristics
Which taxon contains the most members?
Which taxon contains the least members?
What is a species?
group of organisms; can produce fertile offspring
What is the goal of cladistics?
classify species according to order in which they descended from a common ancestor
What is the most abundant group of organisms on Earth?
How many domains are there in the current tree of life?
three: bacteria, eukarya, prokarya
What basis do modern classification systems use?
common ancestry aka phylogeny
How has the classification of organisms changed since the time of Linnaeus and how is it the same?
What is the genetic material of a virus?
DNA or RNA
How does the DNA of a bacteriophage enter a host cell?
How is bioremediation used?
use microbes to clean pollutants
What types of pathogens are fought with antibiotics?
How are plantlike protists like plants?
have chlorophyll, photosynthetic
What is a virus?
infectious particle of a strand of nucleic acid surrounded by a coat of protein
What are bacteriophages?
viruses that infect bacteria
How does an amoeba move?
What are cilia and what is their function?
short, hairlike projections that help protist swim and catch food
Give an example of a common ciliate:
What is chemosynthesis?
method by which some bacteria use chemicals to make food
When do bacteria form endospores?
unfavorable environmental conditions
Which 2 organisms form the lichen>
Which characteristics of a Euglena are plant-like and which are animal-like?
Which plants experience alteration of generation?
Which generation is responsible for producing gametes?
Most gymnosperms form reproductive structures in ____
The opening on the underside of a leaf used for gas exchange is called the ...?
What are cotyledons?
food for developing plants
What is phototrophism?
growing towards sunlight
How does a Venus flytrap demonstrate a nastic response?
closes when touched
Name 3 members of Phylum Annelida:
fan worms, earth worms, leeches
Which 2 animal phyla have radial symmetry?
What are nemotocysts?
stinging cells on tentacles of cnidarians
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