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occupies space and has mass-made of molecules


fundamental unit of matter


smallest part of a substance that retains the same properties of the substace-composed of two or more atoms


when matter is altered, _______ results

composition, arrangement, orbiting electrons

Identification of atom is determined by the __________ of its nucleus and __________ of _________ _________


amount of different atoms in existance

atomic number

the number of protons


protons + neutrons

neutral atom

protons = electrons


number of neutrons are different

gamma rays



substances made up of only one type of atom


unbalanced atom, electron ejected from shell


emission and propagation of energy through space or substance in the form of waves or particles without a physical carrier

radiation, ionization

some _________ can cause ___________

transfer of electrons or by sharing of electrons

molecules are formed by:

ionization, energy, electrostatic, nucleus

__________ requires sufficient ______ to overcome the _____________ force that binds the electrons to the ________

man-made, naturally

radiation can be ________ or occur _________

electromagnetic radiation

movement of energy through space

electrical and magnetic forces, travel in waves, no mass or weight, travels at the speed of light

characteristics of electromagnetic radiation

x-rays, man-made, gamma rays (radioative sources), cosmic rays (sunlight)

types of ionizing radiation

visible light, microwaves, radio/tv

types of non-ionizing radiation

electromagnetic spectrum

listed according to their energy strength

electromagnetic and particle

types of radiation

corpusclar radiation

another name for particle radiation

kinetic energy (moving), has mass and weight,can not reach speed of light, travel in straight lines

characteristics of particle radiation

electrons (beta particles and cathode rays), alpha particles, protons, neutrons

four types

beta particles

high speed electrons; radioactive nucleus

cathode rays

high speed electrons, within x-ray tube

alpha particles

heavy metals; only protons and neutrons


accelarated particles; mass = 1, positive charge


accelerated particles; mass = 1, no charge


discrete bundles of energy

crest to crest or trough to trough

waves are measure from

penetrating, ionizing

shorter waves are more ___________ or ________


waves are measured in

electric, magnetic forces

electromagnetic radiation is caused by ________ and ___________ ______


number of wavelegnths that pass a given point

penetrate matter, produce a latent image, produce fluorescence in certain materials, produces ionization of matter, pure energy without mass or charge, are a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, can adversely affect the biological tissues

properties of x-rays


flow of electrons through a wire


electrical pressure of force that moves electrons between 2 electrical charges


dentistry uses _________


1,000 volts


kilovolt peak, max. kV's

quality of electrons

kV controls the ________ __ _________

amperage or ampere

measure of electrical current


dentistry uses _____________ to measure electrical current

1/1000 ampere

milliampere denotes ______ ______

quantity of electrons

mA controls ________ __ ________

prevents leakage, supports x-ray tube, prevents electric shock

purpose for metal housing

leaded glass envelope in vacuum tube, surrounds electrodes, has window for emission of x-rays

properties of x-ray tube

surrounds x-ray tube, cooling system, and thermal conductor/electrical insulator

purpose for insulating oil

step-up transformer


step-down transformer



regulates electrical voltage

down, milliamperage, quantity, coils, secondary, coil

Step -____ transformer controls _____________ or _______; less turns or _____ in the _________ coil than in the primary ____

up, kilovoltage, quality, more, turns, primary coil

Step- __ transformer controls ________ or _______; ____ _____ or coils in the secondary coil than in the _______ _____

autotransformer, maintains, voltage, step-up

_______________ regulates and _________ the _______ coming in through the ______ transformer

has 2 circuits, cathode, tungsten filament, focusing cup, directs electrons

left side of x-ray tube (vaccum/cathode tube)

high voltage and low voltage

two circuits contain


has negative charge

source of electrons when heated

tungsten filament


metal with negative charge, focusing cup

anode, tungsten target, copper sleeve

right side of x-ray tube


has positive charge

piece of metal embedded into copper stem

tungsten target

target, angled, 20, focal

tungsten ______ is ______ about __ degrees to produce a _____ spot

3373* C

high atomic number and high melting point

kinetic energy, electrons, photons

tungsten target converts ______ ______ of ________ into x-ray _______

good conductor, heat

cooper sleeve is a ____ _________ of ____

dissapates, target

heat _________ from tungsten ______

1%, generates, x-rays

__ of energy _________ into _____

eliminates non useful rays

aluminum filter

diaphragm or collimater

restricts size of primary beam, made of lead

cylinder or rectangular, different lengths

PID, Positioning Indicating Device

turn on unit, set mA's and kVp, select exposure time, thermionic emission produces electron cloud, electron cloud moves from cathode to anode when button is pushed, focusing cup focuses electron cloud towards the target

the sequence of the production of x-rays

cathode ray

electron cloud that moves from cathode to anode by the force of kV's when button is pushed

thermionic emission

removal of electrons by the tungsten filament

electron, formed, removed, turn, on

the ________ cloud is ______ by the _______ electrons, this happens when you ____ the unit __


general radiation

electrons, break, veers

in bremsstrahlung _______ _____ and _____ away

x-ray photon

slowing or stopping of electron creates a _____ _______

bremsstrahlung, break, electron, atom, energy, atom

in ____________, electrons _____ and veer away, after its slowed down or stopped, creating a x-ray photon, the same _______ moves to another ____, giving up ______ as it moves from atom to ____

no ionization occurs

when electrons breaks off and veers, energy expressed in x-rays and heat

bremsstrahlung (general radiation)

the primary source of x-ray photons (70%)

electron hits the nucleus

2nd type of Bremsstrahlung (rare)

one, creates, photon

____ electron ______ one x-ray ______

electrons, electron, tungsten, knocks

_______ hits an _______ in the_______ atom and _____ it loose

energy of movement creates an x-ray photon

cascading affect

electron, energy, electrons, atom, 70 kVp

entering _______ has higher ______ level than _______ in tungsten ____, at least __ ___

photons only, ionization

energy expressed as ______ ____, creating __________

produces small amount of x-rays

characteristic radiation

x-rays, weightless, energy, photons, electrical, waves, frequency, speed

_____ can be defined as ________ bundles of ______ or _______ without an________ charge that travels in ______ with a specific ________ at the _____ of light

photons, materials, ionization

x-ray _______ interact with the ________ they penetrate and cause _________

energy, wave length

x-rays differ in ______ and ____ ______

primary radiation

the penetrating x-ray beam that is produced at the target of the anode and that exits the tubehead

secondary radiation

x-radiation that is created when the primary beam interacts with matter


_________ radiation is less penetrating than primary radiation

scatter radiation

a form of secondary radiation and is the result of an x-ray that has been deflected from its path by the interaction with matter

scatter, deflected, tissues, body, dental

_______ radiation is _________ in all direction by the patients ______ and travels to all parts of the patient's ____ and to all areas of the ______ operatory

x-ray photon, matter, interaction

it is possible for an ____ ______ to pass through ______ or the tissues of a patient without any ___________

photons, interaction, producing densities, radiography

the x-ray _______ that pass through a patient with any ___________ are responsible for _________ _________ on film and make dental ___________ possible

x-ray, completely absorbed, tissues

it is possible for an _____ photon to be __________ ________ within matter or the ________ of a patient


refers to the total transfer of energy from the x-ray photon to the atoms of matter through which the x-ray beam passes

energy, beam, composition, absorbing

absorption dependes on the _______ of the x-ray _____ and the __________ of the _________ matter or tissues

atomic, absorption, photoelectric

at the ______ level _________ occurs as a result of the ____________ effect

photoelectric, ionization

in the ____________ effect, __________ takes place

photoelectric effect

an x-ray photon collides with a tightly bound, inner-shell electron and gives up all its energy to eject the electron from its orbit; the x-ray photon imparts all its kinetic energy to the orbiting electrons, is absorbed, and ceases to exist, 30% of all interactions

ejected, photoelectron, negative

the ______ electron is termed a ___________ and has a ________ charge

deflected, path, passage

it is possible for an x-ray photon to be ___________ from its ______ during its __________ through matter

atomic, compton, scatter

at the ______ level, the _______ effect accounts for most of the _______ radiation

compton scatter

ionization takes place, an x-ray phonton collides with a loosely bound outer-shell elctron and gives up part of its energy to eject the electron from its orbit; the x-ray photon loses energy and continues in a different direction at a lower energy level, incident photon still exists

new, weaker, photon, atoms, energy

the ___, ______ x-ray ______ interacts with other _____ until all its ______ is gone

ejected, compton electron, recoil, negative, positvely

the _______ electron is termed ______ _______ or _____ electron, and has a _______ charge, the remaining atom is _________ charged

62%, diagnostic

compton scatter accounts for ___ of the scatter that occurs in __________ radiography

coherent, unmodified

another type of scatter radiation that may take place when x-rays interact with matter is known as ________ scatter, or _________ scatter

coherent scatter

involves an x-ray photon that has its path altered by matter; occurs when a low energy x-ray photon interacts with an outer-shell electron; no change in the atom occurs, and x-ray photon of scattered radiation is produced, no ionization occurs

coherent scatter, x-ray, direction, incident, no, energy, ionization

in ________ ______ the ____ photon is scattered in a different _________ than the ________ photon, __ loss of ______ and no _________ occurs

8%, interactions, dental, beam

coherent scatter accounts for ___ of the __________ of matter with the ______ x-ray ____


when alternating current is made to flow in one direction

the purpose of filtration

to remove long, soft or non-penetrating waves

inherent filtration

anything included by the manufacturer

added filtration

required by state regulation

collimation, exposure, quality, minimizes

___________ reduces patient _________ and increases _______ and _________ scatter radiation

aborption, tissues, energy, composition

_________ by _______ depends on ______ of x-ray beam and ___________ of absorbing matter

incident photon

the photon that comes form the PID and interacts with matter

pass through

no interatction, no effect on tissues, 9% of x-ray photons during bitewing examination


overall blackness on film


difference of degree in overall blackness

low contrast

lots of black/white, long gray scale, best for perio disease and PA lesions

high contrast

black/white, short gray scale, best for caries detection

increased density, darker film

increased kVp

decreased density, lighter film

decreaed kVp

film contrast

controlled by kVp, absorption of energy

beam intensity

combination of mA, kVp, area exposed, time of exposure

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