Chemistry Chapter 10
Acids, Bases, and Salts
an Arrhenius acid
what is a hydrogen containing compound that, in water, produces hydrogen ions.
the hydrogen ion
what is the acidic species in Arrhenius theory?
an Arrhenius base
what is a hydroxide contaiing compound that, in water, produces hydroxide ions.
the hydroxide ion
what is the basic species in Arrhenius theory?
what is the process in which individual postiive and negative ions are produced from a molecular compound that is dissolved in solution?
what is the process in which individual positive and negative ions are released from an ionic compound that is dissolved in solution?
a Bronsted-Lowry base
what is a substance that can accept a proton (H+ ion) from some other substance. in short, it is a proton acceptor.
a Bronsted-Lowry acid
what is a substance that can donate a proton to some other substance - in short it is a proton donator?
hydrogen ions in an aqueous solution react with water to from what?
a coordinate covalent bond
what kind of bond is the bond between a hydrogen ion and a polar water molecule forming a hydronium ion?
a conjugate acid-base pair
what is two species, one an acid and one a base, that differ from each other though the loss or gain of a proton?
one more H atom and one fewer negative charge
the acid in the acid-base pair always has how many H atoms and how much negative charge as opposed to the base?
a conjugate acid
what is the species formed when a proton (H+ ion) is added to a Bronsted Lowry base?
a conjugate base
what is the species formed when a proton (H+ ion) is removed from a Bronsted Lowry acid?
an amphiprotic substance
what is a substance that can either lose or accpet a proton and thus can function as either a Bronsted-Lowry acid or a Bronsted-Lowry base?
a monoprotic acid
what is an acid that supplies one proton per molecule during an acid-base reaction
a strong acid
what is an acid that transfers 100% of its protons to water in an aqueous solution?
a weak acid
what is an acid that transfers only a small percentage of its protons to water in an aqueous solution. the extent of proton transfer is usually less than 5%
the molecular structure of the acid
the extent to which an acid undergoes ionization depends on what?
far to the right
for strong acids, where does the equilibrium in the equation lie?
far to the left
for weak acids, where does the equilibrium in the equation lie?
NH₃ (aqueous ammonia)
what is the only weak base that exists commonly?
an acid ionization constant
what is the equilibrium constant for the reaction of a weak acid with water?
a base ionization constant
what is the equilibrium constant for the reaction of a weak base with water?
what is an ionic compound containing a metal or polyatomic ion as the positive ion and a nonmetal or polyatomic ion as the negative ion?
an acid-base neutralization chemical reaction
what is the chemical reaction between an acid and a hydroxide base in which a salt and water molecules are produced?
what occurs anytime an acid is completely reacted with a base?
the ion product constant for water
what is the numerical value 1.00 x 10⁻¹⁴ obtained by multiplying together the molar concentrations of H₃O⁺ ion and OH⁻ ion present in pure water at 24 degrees C?
an inverse proportion
what is the relationship between [H₃O⁺]and [OH⁻]
an acidic solution
what is an aqueous solution in which the concentration of H₃O⁺ ion is higher than that of the OH⁻ ion?
a basic solution
what is an aqueous solution in which the concentration of the OH⁻ ion is higher than that of the H₃O⁺ ion?
a neutral solution
what is an aqueous solution in which the conctrations of H₃O⁺ ion and OH⁻ ion are equal?
what is a scale of small numbers that is used to specify molar hydronium ion concentration in an aqueous solution?
pH = -log[H₃O⁺]
how is the pH is the negative logarithm of an aqueous solution's molar hydronium ion concentration expressed mathematically?
a neutral solution
what is an aqueous solution whose pH is 7.0?
an acidic solution
what is an aqueous solution whose pH is less than 7.0?
a basic solution
what is an aqueous solution whose pH is greater than 7.0?
a tenfold change
a change in 1 unit in pH corresponds to how great a change in hydronium ion concentration?
what does the pKa equal?
what is the reaction of a salt with water to produce hydronium ion or hydroxide ion or both?
what is the reaction of a negative ion from a salt with water to produce the ion's conjugate acid and hydroxide ion?
what is the reaction of the positive ion from a salt with water to produce the ion's conjugate base and hydronium ion?
what is an aqueous solution containing substances that prevent major changes in solution pH when small amounts of acid or base are added to it?
a weak acid and its conjugate base
what is a buffer typically composed of?
what is a substance whose aqueous solution conducts electricity?
what is a substance whose aqueous solution does not conduct electricity?
a strong electrolyte
what is a substance that completely ionizes/dissociates into ions in aqueous solution?
a weak electrolyte
what is a substance that incompletely ionizes/dissociates into ions in aqueous solution?
an equivalent (Eq) of an ion
what is the molar amount of an ion that is needed to supply one mole of positive or negative charge?
an acid-base titration
what is a neutralization reaction in which a measured volume of an acid or a base of known concentration is completely reacted with a measured volume of a base or an acid of unknown concentration?
an acid-base indicator
what is a compound that exhibits different colors depending on the pH of its solution?