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BIO 137 Urinary1
Terms in this set (114)
how many liters d kidneys filter daily?
kidneys allow toxins,metabolic wastes and excess ions to...
kidneys regulate__ and__ makeup of blood
volume and chemical
kidneys maintain proper balance between__ and__ and __and__
water,salts,acids and bases
what is highest pressure cap bed in body?
what is only system where we can get rid of metabolic wastes?
which kidney is larger?
what occurs during prolonged fasting?
other renal fxn is to produce__ to help regulates BP
renin BP mechanism is__term
provides temporary storage resevoir for urine
is bladder a collapsable sac?
where is trigon?
base of bladder
kidneys lie in a __position int he superior lumbar region
the right kidney is__ than the left
the lateral surface of the kidney is__
the medial surface of the kidney is_
what all enters and exits at the hilus of kidney
ureters, blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves
fibrous capsule that prevents kidney infection
fatty mass that cushions the kidney and helps attack it to the body wall
outer layer of dense fibrous CT that anchors the kidney
adipose capsule is found on top of...
what is fxnal unit of kidney?
__ __ drain in papilla of pyramid
2 types of nephrons
cortical & juxtamedullary
which nephron is more frequent in humans?
nephron with much longer loops of henle
light colored, granular superficial region
exhibits cone shaped medullary pyramids
pyramids are made up of parallel bundles of___tubules
renal columns are inward extensions of__tissue that separate the pyramids
the medullary pyramid and its surrounding capsule constitute a___
flat, funnel shaped tube lateral to the hilus within the renal sinus
where do pyramids empty?
large branches of the renal pelvis
collects urine draining from papillae
empty urine into the pelvis
urine flows through the__ and __ to the bladder
pelvis and ureters
approx.__ of systemic cardiac output flows through the kidneys each minute
a tuft of capillaries assoc with a renal tubule
blind, cup shaped end of a renal tubule that completely surrounds the glomerulus
highest pressure cap bed in body
the glomerulus and its bowmans capsule
fenestrated epithelium that allows solute rich, protein free filtrate to pass from the blood into the glomerular capsule
glomerular endothelium allows everything except__ and__ to flow throu
proteins and RBC
several nephrons drain into a...
part of nephron right before DCT comes back and is in close contact w/ bowmans capsule so body can monitor....
final product thats excreted
external parietal layers of glomerular capsule is a__layer
the__ layer of glomerular capsule consists of modified, branching epithelial podocytes
extensions of podocytes in the glomerular capsule terminate inthe
openings bt the foot processes that allow filtrate to pass into the capsular space
reabsorbs h2o and solutes from filtrate and secretes substances into it
hairpin shaped loop of the renal tubule
loop of henle
prox part of loop of henle is similar to...
prox part of loop of henle is followed by__segment and the__ segment
thin segment of loop of henle is composed of what cells?
thick segment of loop of henle is composed of what cells?
cuboidal to columnar cells
DCT is composed of what cells?
what cells are found in connecting tubules
intercalated, principal cells
fxn in maintaining the acidbase balance of the body
help maintain the bodys water and salt balance
85% of nephrons, located in the cortex
located in the cortex-medulla jxn
loops of henle deeply invade the medulla
involved in the production of concentrated urine
what is cap bed around cortical nephron
what is cap bed of juxtamedullary nephron
every nephrons has what 2 cap beds?
glomerulus, peritubular cap
each glomerulus is fed by an__ arteriole
each glomerulus is drained by an__ arteriole
why is BP high in glomerulus?
afferent arterioles have larger diameters than efferent arterioles
BP declines from__mmHg in renal arteries to_mmHg in renal veins
arteriole walls have__ cells
juxtaglomerular cells (JG)
__ cells act as mechanoreceptors
JG cells regulates ___, part of renin system
cells that lie adjacent to JG cells
cells that fxn as chemoreceptors or osmoreceptors
JG cells packed next to...
3 layers of filtration membrane
fenestrated endothelium, visceral membrane, basement membrane
kidneys filter the bodys entire plasma volume_times a day
filtrate contains all plasma components except...
filtrate loses water, nutrients and essential ions to become__
the urine contains
metabolic wastes and unneeded substances
urine formation and adjustment of blood composition involves 3 major processes
glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, secretion
glomerulus is more efficient than any other cap bed bc filtration membrane is more__
glomerulus BP is__
glomerular filtration has ahigher net__pressure
__ are not filtered and are used to maintain oncotic pressure of the blood
pressure responsible for filtrate formation
net filtration pressure
total amt of filtrate formed perminute by the kidneys
glomerular filtration rate
factors governing filtration rate at cap bed are...
total SA, permeability, net filtration pressure
GFR is directly proportional to the...
changes in GFR normally result from changes in...
afferent or efferent arteriole is larger?
if GFR is too high...
needed substances cant be reabsorbed quickly enough and are lost in urine
if GFR is too low
everything is reabsorbed, including wastes that are normally disposed of
3 mechanisms that control the GFR
renal autoregulation, neural controls, hormonal mechanism
responds to changes in pressure int he renal blood vessels
senses changes in the juxtaglomerular apparatus
flow dependent tubuloglomerular feedback autoregulation
when SNS is at rest the renal blood vessels are maximally...
when SNS is at rest the autoregulation mechanisms...
under stress __ is released by SNS
under stress __ is released from medulla
unders stressafferent arteriole constrict and__ in inhibited
triggered when JG cells release renin
renin acts on__ to release angiotensin 1
angiotensin 1 is converted to...
angiotensin 2 causes__ __ pressure to rise
angiotenin 2 stimulates the adrenal cortex to release
renin angiotensin mechanism causes what pressure to rise?
systemic and glomerular hydrostatic
renin release is triggered by...
reduced stretch of granular JG cells
renin release is trigered by
stim of JG cells by activated macula densa cells
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