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A router that is not configured to drop packets that match certain suspicious characteristics is an example of a risk associated with ____.

transmission and hardware

In a ____ attack, a person redirects or captures secure transmissions as they occur.


An NOS that contains a "back door"is an example of a risk associated with ____.

protocols and software

____ software searches a node for open ports.

Port scanner

____ protocols are the rules that computers follow to accomplish authentication.


A ____ attack occurs when a hacker tries numerous possible character combinations to find the key that will decrypt encrypted data.

brute force

In general, information is ____________________ if it could be used by other parties to impair an organization's functioning, decrease customers' confidence, cause a financial loss, damage an organization's status, or give a significant advantage to a competitor.


A(n) ____ is a password-protected and encrypted file that holds an individual's identification information, including a public key.

digital certificate

A(n) ____________________ is a software application on a network host that acts as an intermediary between the external and internal networks, screening all incoming and outgoing traffic.

proxy service

A ____ attack occurs when an Internet chat user sends commands to a victim's machine that cause the screen to fill with garbage characters and requires the victim to terminate their chat sessions.


____ is a public key encryption system that can verify the authenticity of an e-mail sender and encrypt e-mail data in transmission.


The combination of a public key and a private key is known as a ____.

key pair

In ____, both computers verify the credentials of the other.

mutual authentication

In ____ , a hacker forges name server records to falsify his host's identity.

DNS spoofing

A ____ firewall is a router (or a computer installed with software that enables it to act as a router) that examines the header of every packet of data it receives to determine whether that type of packet is authorized to continue to its destination.


____ is a method of encrypting TCP/IP transmissions.


____________________ is the use of an algorithm to scramble data into a format that can be read only by reversing the algorithm.


A(n) ____________________ identifies an organization's security risks, levels of authority, designated security coordinator and team members, responsibilities for each team member, and responsibilities for each employee.

security policy

The use of certificate authorities to associate public keys with certain users is known as ____.


A(n) ____________________ is a thorough examination of each aspect of the network to determine how it might be compromised.

security audit

A ____ main function is to examine packets and determine where to direct them based on their Network layer addressing information.


A ____ attack occurs when a system becomes unable to function because it has been deluged with data transmissions or otherwise disrupted.


A VPN ____ authenticates VPN clients and establishes tunnels for VPN connections.


A ____ attack occurs when a hacker uses programs that try a combination of a user ID and every word in a dictionary to gain access to the network.


____ is a social engineering practice in which a person attempts to glean access or authentication information by posing as someone who needs that information.


RADIUS and TACACS belong to a category of protocols known as AAA (____).

authentication, authorization, and accounting

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