American History Chapter 2
Terms in this set (53)
A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it. The indians had to pay tribute to the settlers in the form or crops or free labor.
A landed estate, esp. one used for farming or ranching. The Indians on these farms were not slaves but had become 'peons" enslaved by debt.
A set of economic principles based on policies which stress government regulation of economic activities to benefit the home country
How was mercantilism used by the Spanish King
American colonies supposed to produce only what Spain needed and to buy everything it needed form Spain.
The king and the spanish church felt it was their sacred duty to convert the indians and has each indian mission overseen by a few monks.
What happened to the indian population when the Europeans arrived?
The population decreased drastically as diseases like smallpox, typhoid and measles came from Europe
St Augustine, Florida
First Spanish boarder settlement
Father Junipero Serra
Founded missions in SanDiego , the first of 21 missions in California. He stood up for the Indians against the Spanish
Supreme Council of the Indies
a council in spain that had complete control over colonists' life. run by the king.
English royal family, dynasty founded by Henry VII; includes some of England's most influential monarchs; Elizabeth
Sir Francis Drake
Most famous "Sea dog" who, at the encouragement of Elizabeth, plundered in the name of Protestant England against Spanish ships and settlements
King of England from 1509 to 1547; under him England broke with the Roman Catholic Church. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
Queen Elizabeth I
This "virgin" queen ruled England for 50 years and was one of the most successful monarchs in English History. She supported the arts, increased the treasury, supported the exploration of the New World, built up the military, and established the Church of England as the main religion in England
Defeat of the Spanish Armada
The British defeated the mighty Spanish Armada & paved the way for Great Britain to set up colonies in America. Other nations soon joined in challenging Spain in the sea, and in America for their colonies
Sir Humphry Gilbert
Queen Elizabeth that gave him first colonial charter to establish a colony in the Americas. On return voyage he was lost at sea. His mission had failed but he was the pathfinder of the British Empire
King of Spain, married to Queen Mary I of England;he was the most powerful monarch in Europe until 1588; controlled Spain, the Netherlands, the Spanish colonies in the New World, Portugal, Brazil, parts of Africa, parts of India, and the East Indies. Wanted to control England sent the Spanish Armada
Received a charter from Queen Elizabeth I to explore the American coastline. His ships landed on Roanoke, which became a "lost colony."
An English writer that wrote a Discourse on Western Planting in which he tried to convince the English in England to relocate to the American colonies
only clue to the fate of settlers who disappeared from Roanoke
One of England's first attempts at colonization of America was the Roanoke Island by Sir Walter Raleigh. However the settlers were left at Roanoke, and when a supply ship returned about a year later, there was no trace of civilization. Roanoke Island Colony became thus known as the Lost Colony.
joint stock company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts
English explorer who helped found the colony at Jamestown, Virginia
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
The winter of 1609 to 1610 was known as the "starving time" to the colonists of Virginia. Only sixty members of the original four-hundred colonists survived. The rest died of starvation because they did not possess the skills that were necessary to obtain food in the new world.
Colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years
The first successful English Colony. Named after King James I
The Virginia Company of London
James I granted the company settlement of all the land form northern New Jersey down to the Middle of South Carolina
English Protestants wh owould not accept allegiance in any form to the Church of England. Included the Pilgrims and Quakers
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
English Puritans who founded Plymouth colony in 1620
1st of 4 Stuart kings, Cousin of Elizabeth, Wrote law of free monarchy
Native American who helped the Pilgrims. Showed the Pilgrims how to plant corn, fertilize the soil, where to catch fish and how to trap beaver
First governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630.
Puritan preacher who fled to Massachusetts after his views on religious observance became to extreme for the colonists; bought land from Native Americans and founded Providence (in Rhode Island)
A Puritan woman who was well learned that disagreed with the Puritan Church in Massachusetts Bay Colony. Her actions resulted in her banishment from the colony, and later took part in the formation of Rhode Island. She displayed the importance of questioning authority.
When they landed in the wrong place they decided on the ship to create a new government to serve avery special purpose. It set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
Why is the Mayflower Compact Important?
The First agreement for self-government in America.
What made the Puritans Successful Settlers?
There deep religious beliefs made them strong that God would make sure his own people would not be destroyed.
Why was the Rhode Island Colony Founded?
It was founded by Roger Williams, a puritan, for greater religions tolerance. It became the haven for independent thinkers. other religious such as the quakers and Jews mover there also.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Charter given by James I to the puritans to settle. From the start is was a self-governing colony
Samuel de Champlain
French explorer in Nova Scotia who established a settlement on the site of modern Quebec (1567-1635)
The governor of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, hated by the colonists. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.
Duke of York
King Charles II gave the gave the land between Connecticut and Maryland to his brother. They took it from the dutch and renamed it New York instead of New Netherland/New Amsterdam
What was unique about New Netherland ?
The people here where the merchants of the world and they ran their colony to maximize trade and making money. The let nearly everyone in not because of religious tolerance but to make a profit.
A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
English leader who founded the colony of Georgia as a place where the poor and the debtors from England could begin new lives
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preach a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
colony run by individuals or groups to whom land was granted. These men appointed the governor, set up the laws, and collected land tax
Why did both Pennsylvania and Georgia find it hard to rule their colonies?
Pennsylvania because of the deep pacific belief of its settlers, and Georgia because of the types of people that were attracted by its English founders.
How did false Advertising and rumors affect the settlement of the American Colonies>
The false advertising tried to make it seem like coming to America would be great where it was always sunny, fruits were sweet and the fish were large and easy to catch.
Rumors that America was difficult, with savage Indians and disserted wilderness.
Neither made a difference as most people did not want to emigrate from the countries they loved.
In what ways did the finding of Rhode Island and Connecticut provide evidence of religious intolerance and religious freedom
Rhode Island was A perfect example of this. Roger William who founded this colony left Massachusetts because he did not agree with the Puritan version of truth. Rhode Island became the colony of independent thinkers and refuge for liberty and accepting of different religions including Quakers and Jews
Connecticut was founded by people expanding from Massachusetts west. First example of separation of church and state. These settlers adopted their own " fundamental orders" a framework for self government.
What Developments in the 1500's allowed England to Challenge Spain for North America?
The tutors come to power. They are an intelligent, skillful and ruthless and they have England leave the catholic church and start the church of England. Queen Elizabeth (the Virgin Queen) sets England up as a great sea power and Sir Frances Drake defeats Spanish Armada. This marks the beginning of the rise of England and decline of Spain.
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