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PSYC 364 Quiz 3
Terms in this set (73)
Three aspects of color
Hue, brightness, saturation
determined by wavelength (color)
determined by the amount of light (bright-dark)
how much of a hue is present
pale, washed out (less saturated)- vivid (saturated)
light that cannot be decomposed into any other colors (e.g. red, green)
light consisting of combination of some pure lights (e.g., yellow= red+ green)
can be used to predict the color produced by mixing different colors
Non spectral color
color that is not in the color circle
e.g. purple= red+ violet
any two color lights that together make up white light
Additive mixture (mixture of color lights)
A new color is produced by the addition of wavelengths
Subtractive color mixture (mixture of color inks)
A new color is produced by the subtraction (absorption) of wavelength. (each link contains pigments that absorb particular wavelength)
(Young Helmholtz theory) We see the colors as we see because we have three types of cones.
The response of the receptor conveys information about how much light is absorbed, not about the wavelength of the absorbed light. Two factors affecting the amount of light absorbed: 1. wavelength and 2. intensity
Monochromacy (one color)
eyes with only one type of cone pigment. An eye with one type of cone pigment cannot see color, because with the proper adjustment of intensities, all wavelengths could be made to affect the receptor in exactly the same way. Everything looks various shades of gray. (think 50 shades of grey was a monogamous relationship)
Three types of cones are good enough to perserve the wavelength information and most efficient
Trichromacy: S type
Blue cones. Sensitive to short wavelength (think short blue smurfs)
Trichromacy: M Type
Green cone. Sensitive to medium wavelength (think medium size pickle)
Trichromacy: L Type
Red cone. Sensitive to long wavelength (long periods)
Dichromacy: Two colors
Eyes with two types of cone pigments can distinguish some color
A single particular wavelength of light that produces exactly the same pair of responses between two cones (think neutral, mediator)
Red cone cells detective (P.R. Puerto Rico)
Green cone cells detective (D.G. Dangerous Gangsters)
Blue cone cells detective (T.B. TB Shots)
Three types of cones, but the sensitivity to particular wavelengths is not normal
A change in color appearance brought about by juxtaposing particular color pairs
An illusory color produced by exposure to an intense stimulus. If you look at red for a while and then look at white paper, we see green.
Three color opponent processes: Achromatic channel
black (-) - white(+) channel respond positively to white light and negatively to the absence of light (B is a - because it comes first in the A-Z)
Three color opponent processes: Chromatic channel (b/y)
blue (-) - yellow (+) channel respond positively to yellow light and negatively to blue. (think A-Z)
Three color opponent processes: Chromatic channel (r/g)
red (+) - green (-) channel respond positively to red and negatively to green (Think A-Z, R is after G so it is greater +)
Color opponent cells: Positive response
(+) increase firing rate compared to the baseline level
Color opponent cells: Negative response
(-) decrease firing rate
e.g. G+R: Green center (+) and red surround (-)
Double opponent cells
Color perception in V4
Cells in V4 compare the wavelength in their receptive fields with the wavelength in other fields, whereas cells in earlier stages respond to only local wavelength in their receptive field
impairement in color perception due to damage to V4 (Achromatopsia is different from color blindness)(A: not; Chrom:color; Opsia: Sight)
Achromatopsia: Partial damage
makes color dirty or washed out (less saturated)
Achromatopsia: Hemisphere dependent
damage to V4 in right hemisphere would make objects in LVF colorless, where as objects in RVF intact.
color of a surface is perceived as constant even when illuminated in different lighting conditions and even thought the physical wavelength composition of light reflected from a surface can be shown to differ under different conditions (cf. lightness constancy)
Color constancy may be achieved by cells in V4
Detecting shifts in relative positions of retinal image
When a dot moves slowly in a dark room, we are not certain if it is moving (Threshold:2.5mm per second) Detection of movement is improved when a frame of reference is introduced.
ex. a square frame around the target
In a dark room, a small spot of light appears to drift slowly when observers gaze upon it for a while. (Auto: self; Kin: motion)
Two sources of information in the image-retina system
Movement of stimuli relative to observer's position (autokinetic effect). It is difficult to detect small movement. Threshold is higher.
Movement of stimuli relative to other objects (frame of reference). It is easier to detect small movement. The movement threshold is lower.
Illusory motion of one object that is caused by the movement of another (usually larger) object.
e.g. The moon appears to move when the cloud moves
Perception of motion created by rapid alternation of objects presented at different spatial locations without any physical motion.
Max Wertheimer (Phi movement)(circle looks like its switching spots but its just blinking in different spots)
temporal variation but no spatial variation
temporal as well as spatial variation
Smooth Pursuit Eye Movement
To track moving objects. Tracking a home run, a bird flying, a car, etc.
Two sources to guide the smooth pursuit eye movement
1. Sensory and signals from the eyes
2. Cognitive expectations (knowledge about objects motion)
Dynamic Visual Acuity
Visual acuity for an moving object. Dynamic visual acuity is poorer than static visual acuity. Dynamic visual acuity is determined by object's speed, intensity, & size. Dynamic visual acuity can be improved with practice
Vestibular Eye Movement
Smooth compensatory eye movement to maintain the fixation on a stationary target when the head moves.
The vestibular system in the ear signals the head movement, and the brain calculate effort the compensatory eye movement.
Direction Sensitive Cells (V5/MT)
Middle Temporal. DS cells in MT have larger receptive field size than those in V1. In V1, only a minority of cells show direction sensitivity, whereas in MT, nearly all neurons show direction sensitivity.
Prolonged exposure to a particular motion causes reduced sensitivity to other visual stimuli moving in the same direction at the same speed.
After prolonged viewing of movement in one direction, we may have illusory perception of motion that a stationary object is moving in the opposite direction.
e.g. waterfall illusion.
Sensory adaption account
Cells that are responsive to downward motion are fatigued and therefore show little activity, whereas cells that are responsive to upward motion show a normal level of activity.
Akinetopsia (motion blindness)
Impairment of motion perception. Akinetopsia is an inability to percieve motion due to brain damage disrupting input to the dorsal pathway (V5/MT). Individuals with akinetopsia can only perceive movement through a compilation of still images as if they were watching the world through a strobe light. Akinetopsia is also known as motion blindness. (A: not; Kine: motion; opsia: sight)
Refer to the phenomenon of a moving, animate object. The stimuli used in biological motion are just a few moving dots that reflect the motion of some key joints of the moving animal. (think youtube video of green dots in dark room moving)
Structure from motion
The impression of an object's shape that derives from the object's motion.
e.g. Think of taking pictures of the parts of the castle and putting them together.
Perception of 3D locations of objects in relation the the perceiver's position in space
direction in which the object is located relative to yourself
distance between an observe and an object
distance between objects
Oculomotor cues: Accommodation
ciliary muscles; the lens is thicker when we look at near objects (ciliary muscles contract)
Oculomotor cues: Convergence
extraocular muscles; our eyes converge to focus on near objects
based on information from two eyes
perception of relative depth from binocular vision
the difference in the monocular views of the two eyes. A slight difference in lateral separation between objects seen by the left and right eye. It provides relative depth between objects, not absolute depth
Binocular disparity: Two objects farther apart
Farther apart in depth, binocular disparity is greater
Binocular disparity: Two objects are closer to each other
Closer to each other in depth, binocular disparity is smaller
Binocular disparity: Two objects are in the same distance
no difference in depth, there is no binocular disparity
Random-dot stereogram (Bela Jules)
The left and right eyes receive exactly the same pattern except that some portion of the picture for one eye is shifted slightly. This shift causes the retinal disparity, resulting in the stereoscopic vision
(binocular cells in V1) some cells prefer large disparity, and other prefer small disparity
some people do not have disparity-sensitive cells, and therefore, do not have stereopsis
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