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Biology 2nd Semester (4th Quarter) Exam Study Guide Extra Credit
Terms in this set (37)
Explain the functions of the circulatory system and the respiratory system.
Circulatory = provide oxygenated blood throughout the body
Respiratory= take in oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide
Analyze the relationship between the circulatory system and the respiratory system.
The respiratory system provides the circulatory system with oxygen, and takes the carbon dioxide from the blood and expels it from the body. The circulatory and respiratory system depend on each other.
Distinguish between pulmonary and systemic circulation.
pulmonary circuit = occurs in the right side of the heart and it pumps O2 poor blood to the lungs.
systemic circuit = occurs in the left side of the heart and it pumps O2 rich blood to the body.
Identify and summarize the functions of the major structures of the heart.
atrium = receives blood and pumps blood to the ventricles. ventricles = pump blood out of the heart.
pulmonary artery = carries blood to the lungs.
Valves = keep blood flowing in one direction.
aorta = the largest artery in the body.
Compare and contrast the different types of blood vessels.
Veins = carry oxygen poor blood back to the heart.
Arteries = carry oxygen rich blood away from the heart throughout the body.
Capillaries = connect veins and arteries.
All vessels have the same layers, just different thicknesses.
Describe how contraction of the heart is regulated (by the Sinoatrial Node and the Atrioventricular Node).
Atrial contraction = the Sinoatrial node begins the contraction which spreads to both atria.
Ventricular contraction = the impulse from the SA node is picked up by the Atrioventricular node. Impulses then spread throughout both ventricles. Both ventricles contract at the same time.
Determine the factors that affect a person's blood pressure.
Determine what occurs in the major disorders of the circulatory system (atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke)
Atherosclerosis = when plaque builds up in the arteries causing blockage
High blood pressure = A condition in which the force of the blood against the artery walls is too high
Heart Attack = When the major blood supply to the heart ruptures
Stroke = When the major blood supply to the brain ruptures
List the major components of blood. Describe their functions and how that relates to the structure of the cell.
Ethrocytes = red blood cells, carry oxygen throughout blood
Leukocytes = white blood cells, fight off infections
Thrombocytes = Platelets, blood clotting
Plasma = 55% of blood (90% water) allows blood to move through the veins
Understand the evolution of the Circulatory. Know which animals had which type of circulatory system and why it was efficient for that group of animals.
the animals either had a single or double loop
Locate and describe the major functions of the respiratory system.
supply the blood with oxygen and to expel carbon dioxide as waste.
Describe how gas exchange occurs between alveoli and capillary beds in the lungs.
alveoli bring oxygen and carbon dioxide to capillary beds and they switch
Describe the process of exhaling and inhaling.
When you inhale, your diaphragm contracts causing your lungs to expand and fill with air, when you exhale your diaphragm relaxes, pushing causing the lungs to push the air out.
Determine the effects of smoking on the respiratory system.
Smoking paralyzes your cilia in your lungs, causing them to blacken and become less efficient.
Describe the evolution of the respiratory system.
porifera, or sponges were the first ones and they used filter feeders.
Explain the functions of both the skeletal system and the muscular system.
Skeletal system = supports the body, protects internal organs, provides movement, stores mineral reserves, provides a site for blood cell formation
Muscular system = movement, maintaining posture, heat production
Describe the structure of a typical bone.
Bones are a solid network of living cells surrounded by a calcium-phosphate matrix.
Identify the different types of joints and describe their movement.
Immovable: provide no movement
Slightly movable: provide small amount of movement
Freely movable: permit movement in 2 or more directions
1. Ball and socket
Describe how bones develop.
Ossification (the process by which cartilage is replaced by bone)
Locate and identify the major bones in the body.
femur, biceps fimoris, falanges, etc. see chart
Locate and identify the major muscles in the body and determine their function.
see chart, but you said we didn't need to know any muscles
Distinguish between the 3 different types of muscle tissue.
Skeletal = have striations, nucleus, and muscle fiber
Cardiac = have striations and intercalated disks, muscle fiber, nucleus
Smooth = have nucleus and muscle fiber
Explain how muscles contract using the sliding filament theory.
The myosin pulls the actin filaments closer together.
Describe how muscles and bones cooperate to create body movement.
The muscles pull on the bone to create movement.
Describe the three types of skeleton in animals.
Hydrostatic = fluids held in a gastrovascular cavity that works with contractile cells to alter the animals body shape
Exoskeleton = external skeleton, mollusks have shells and arthropods have hard outer covering
Endoskeleton = internal skeleton
Explain how muscles produce movement in animals.
generate a physical force, then apply the force. The muscles work in pairs (flexor and extensor). Tendons pull on bones when muscles contract.
Compare and contrast secondary sexual development (effects of Puberty) in both males and females.
Males = deepen voice, broad shoulders, muscle development, pubic hair, facial hair, Adam's apple
Females = hips widen, breast development, body fat increases, pubic hair
Identify the major structures of the male reproductive system and describe their function. (Use diagrams and Structures list)
(look at reproductive diagrams)
Identify the major structures of the female reproductive system and describe their function. (Use diagrams and Structures list)
(look at reproductive diagrams)
Explain what occurs during the four main stages of the menstrual cycle. ( Menstrual cycle page from Lab manual to Help)
Follicular phase = Hypothalamus releases GNRH, causes the pituitary gland to release FSH and LH, cause the ovarian follicle to mature....produces estrogen....causes endometrium to thicken
Ovulation = LH surges.....causes the follicle to release an egg
Luteal = burst follicle forms corpus luteum....secretes estrogen and progesterone....progesterone prevents pituitary from releasing FSH....maintained by HCG which is produces by the fertilized egg
Menstruation = occurs only if the egg is not fertilized.....no HCG produced. Endometrium sheds
Explain how hormones are involved in the menstrual cycle.
Hormones can prevent other hormones from being produced
Identify some major events in birth.
Dilation: cervix is dilated to 10 cm (oxytocin causes contractions)
Expultion: baby is pushed through the vagina
Placental: the placenta is expelled
Describe the evolution of the reproductive system: asexual vs sexual , internal fertilization vs external fertilization.
asexual = easy dont need mate can do by self, no diversity
Sexual=harder need mate, genetic diversity
Understand the major structures and functions of the dogfish shark.
bladder helps it float, etc. see handouts
Understand the adaptations the shark has to become a top predator in its environment.
large amount of teeth
able to detect motion in water
Understand the adaptations the shark has for its environment.
snout that detects electromagnetic waves.
Know the digestive tract and the functions and enzymes produced (Not on study guide, but email said we need to know it).
mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus
stomach has acid to help break down food
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