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Microbiology Final

Bacteria, fungi, worms, viruses
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Treponema pallidum
easily killed, intimate contact (break in skin, penetration of mucous membranes), transplacental, painless chancre, 2-10 weeks after infection, 6 weeks to heal
Syphilis
skin lesions, fever, malaise, pharyngitis, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, gummas, birth defects, death of fetus
Borrelia burgdorferi
most common vector in US, deer tick, target rash, flu-like symptoms, erythema chronicum migrans
lyme disease second stage
arthritic, arthralgic, cardiac and neurologic symtoms, bell's palsy
lyme disease third stage
chronic arthritis, progressive CNS disease
Rickettsia
small, pleiomorphic coccobacilli - obligate intracellular parasites
Rickettsia rickettsia
tick-borne (south and central mid-altantic coast), high fever, petechial rash, can lead to vascular collapse
Rickettsia proazekii
typhus, lice-borne, unsanitary conditions, high fever, headache, prostration, stupor, CNS dysfunction, and myocarditis
Rickettsia typhii
Murine (endemic) typhus, rat flea-borne, SE US and Gulf States, headache, myalgia, fever
Coxiella burnetii
Q-fever, cattle, sheep and goats serve as reseviors, inhale dust, interstitial pneumonitis, and fever
Erlichia chaffeensis (Anaplasmosis)
Human monocytic erlichiosis
Anaplasma phagocytophilum
Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, white-footed deer mouse, tick-borne, infects granulocytes, rapid onset fever, chills, headache, myalgia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia
Myobacteria
Acid fast stain, aerobic bacilli, mycolic acid cell wall impervious to chemical disinfectants and drying, slow developing diseases,
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Pink acid fast stain, consumpation or white plague, biggest killer worldwide, lung infection (may disseminate), coughing, Multi-drug resistant strains (resists 2 of the 4 agents of treatment)
Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex
Disseminated miliary disease, immunosuppressed
Mycobacterium leprae
Hansen's disease, prolonged skin contact (exudates to abraided skin), Chronic granulomatous condition, neuritis leading to anesthesia
Helminths
Cestodes, Nematodes, Trematodes, damage from dissemination rather than primary site of infection, 70% of world infected,
Helminth Transmission and treatment
eggs, larvae, insect bites, skin penetration, drugs, symptoms, wait for death of pathogen
Helminths anatomy
no circulatory system, anaerobic respiration, nourished by host's tissue or nutrients, energy expenditure mainly for reproduction
Nematodes
elongated, non-segmented, tapered at both ends, don't reproduce in humans, categorized by site of infection and mode of infection
Intestinal nematodes in US
Pinworms, Roundworms, Whipworms, Hookworms, Threadworms, Trichinella
Enterobiasis (pinworm infection)
Enterobius, most common worm infection, eggs ingested, perianal itching
Pinworm
Eggs hatch in small intestine, larvae migrate to colon, adults leave colon to lay eggs, scotch tape test
Ascariasis (roundworm infection)
Ascaris lumbricoides, worldwide, abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, malnutrion, abdominal obstruction, small intestine, eggs in soil (ingest), infection (small intestine, lungs, swallowed)
Trichuriasis (whipworm infection)
Trichuris trichuria, rural SE US, damage intestine, nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, stunt growth, mucousal damage (ulceration and hemorrhage), blood loss, anemia, rectal prolapse, egg serve as diagnostic
Hookworms
Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, ground itch, pneumonitis, cough, dyspnea, anemia (blood loss), epigastric pain, abnormal peristaltis, migrating larva, soil, penetrate skin, small intestine
Strongyloidiasis (threadworm infection)
Strongyloides stercoralis, pneumonitis, cough, dyspnea, watery diarrhea, reinfects host (transient lesions), intestinal irritation, malabsorption, filarial migration (fatal in immunocompromised), small intestine, soil