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Bacteria, fungi, worms, viruses

Treponema pallidum

easily killed, intimate contact (break in skin, penetration of mucous membranes), transplacental, painless chancre, 2-10 weeks after infection, 6 weeks to heal


skin lesions, fever, malaise, pharyngitis, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, gummas, birth defects, death of fetus

Borrelia burgdorferi

most common vector in US, deer tick, target rash, flu-like symptoms, erythema chronicum migrans

lyme disease second stage

arthritic, arthralgic, cardiac and neurologic symtoms, bell's palsy

lyme disease third stage

chronic arthritis, progressive CNS disease


small, pleiomorphic coccobacilli - obligate intracellular parasites

Rickettsia rickettsia

tick-borne (south and central mid-altantic coast), high fever, petechial rash, can lead to vascular collapse

Rickettsia proazekii

typhus, lice-borne, unsanitary conditions, high fever, headache, prostration, stupor, CNS dysfunction, and myocarditis

Rickettsia typhii

Murine (endemic) typhus, rat flea-borne, SE US and Gulf States, headache, myalgia, fever

Coxiella burnetii

Q-fever, cattle, sheep and goats serve as reseviors, inhale dust, interstitial pneumonitis, and fever

Erlichia chaffeensis (Anaplasmosis)

Human monocytic erlichiosis

Anaplasma phagocytophilum

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, white-footed deer mouse, tick-borne, infects granulocytes, rapid onset fever, chills, headache, myalgia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia


Acid fast stain, aerobic bacilli, mycolic acid cell wall impervious to chemical disinfectants and drying, slow developing diseases,

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Pink acid fast stain, consumpation or white plague, biggest killer worldwide, lung infection (may disseminate), coughing, Multi-drug resistant strains (resists 2 of the 4 agents of treatment)

Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex

Disseminated miliary disease, immunosuppressed

Mycobacterium leprae

Hansen's disease, prolonged skin contact (exudates to abraided skin), Chronic granulomatous condition, neuritis leading to anesthesia


Cestodes, Nematodes, Trematodes, damage from dissemination rather than primary site of infection, 70% of world infected,

Helminth Transmission and treatment

eggs, larvae, insect bites, skin penetration, drugs, symptoms, wait for death of pathogen

Helminths anatomy

no circulatory system, anaerobic respiration, nourished by host's tissue or nutrients, energy expenditure mainly for reproduction


elongated, non-segmented, tapered at both ends, don't reproduce in humans, categorized by site of infection and mode of infection

Intestinal nematodes in US

Pinworms, Roundworms, Whipworms, Hookworms, Threadworms, Trichinella

Enterobiasis (pinworm infection)

Enterobius, most common worm infection, eggs ingested, perianal itching


Eggs hatch in small intestine, larvae migrate to colon, adults leave colon to lay eggs, scotch tape test

Ascariasis (roundworm infection)

Ascaris lumbricoides, worldwide, abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, malnutrion, abdominal obstruction, small intestine, eggs in soil (ingest), infection (small intestine, lungs, swallowed)

Trichuriasis (whipworm infection)

Trichuris trichuria, rural SE US, damage intestine, nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, stunt growth, mucousal damage (ulceration and hemorrhage), blood loss, anemia, rectal prolapse, egg serve as diagnostic


Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, ground itch, pneumonitis, cough, dyspnea, anemia (blood loss), epigastric pain, abnormal peristaltis, migrating larva, soil, penetrate skin, small intestine

Strongyloidiasis (threadworm infection)

Strongyloides stercoralis, pneumonitis, cough, dyspnea, watery diarrhea, reinfects host (transient lesions), intestinal irritation, malabsorption, filarial migration (fatal in immunocompromised), small intestine, soil

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