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86 terms

psych 11

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personality
a pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world
psychodynamic perspectives
views of personality as primarily unconscious (that is, beyond awareness) and as developing in stages. most psychoanalytic perspectives emphasize that early experiences with parents play a role in sculpting personality
psychodynamic theorists
believe that behavior is merely a surface characteristic and that to truly understand someone's personality we have to explore the symbolic meanings of behavior and the deep inner workings of the mind
Sigmund Freud
architect of psychoanalytic theory p408
Freudian slips
misstatements that Freud believed reveal unconscious thoughts
...defined sex as organ pleasure
Freud...
psychoanalysis
Freud's approach to personality
hysteria
physical symptoms that have no physical cause
overdetermined
hysterical symptoms that had a multitude of causes in the unconscious
Freud's model of the human personality
personality exists mostly below the level of awareness in the unconscious; Ego, superego, ID
ID
it; constists of unconscious drives and is the individual's reservoir of psychic energy; entirely below the unconscious p409
ego
formed as people grow; I; deals with the demands of reality; partly conscious p410
reality principle
Freudian ego abides by this to bring the individual into societal norms
what the ego houses
higher mental functions - reasoning, problem solving, and decision making
superego
harsh internal judge of our behavior; "conscious" that evaluates morality; somewhat conscious p410
defense mechanisms
the ego's protective methods for reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
repression
the most powerful and pervasive defense mechanism according to Freud; the ego pushes unacceptable impulses out of awareness, back into the unconscious mind
defense mechanisms
unconscious, not unhealthy when used in moderation; the way for the ego to survive in a stressful world p411
erogenous zones
according to freud, the parts of the body that have especially strong pleasure-giving qualities at particular stages of development
oral stage
infants pleasure centers in the mouth
anal stage
toilet training, fixation with that
phallic stage
child's discovery that self-stimulation is enjoyable; triggers the oedipus complex
Oedipus complex
a young boy's intense desire to replace his father and enjoy the affections of his mother
castration anxiety
the boy's intense fear of being mutilated by his father
castration completed
Freud's classification of females; penis envy
latency period
psychic time-out/intermission; Freud considered not important, but we know it is extremely important
genital stage
sexual reawakening; unresolved conflicts with parents reemerge
fixation
the psychoanalytic defense mechanism that occurs when the individual remains locked in an earlier developmental stage
horney
rejected the classical psychoanalytic concepts that anatomy is destiny and cautioned that some of Freud's ideas were only hypothesis p413
jung
developed concepts of collective unconscious and archetypes p413
collective unconscious
the impersonal, deepest layer of the unconscous mind, shared by all human beings because of their common ancestral past
archetypes
emotionally laden ideas and images that have rich and symbolic meaning for all people; the collective unconscious is expressed through this
two common archetypes
amina/woman and animus/man (feminine and masculine side) p 314
adler's
individual psychology p 414
individual psychology
people are motivated by purposes and goals and as striving for perfection over pleasure
compensation
Adler's term for the individual's attempt to overcome imagined or real inferiorities or weaknesses by developing one's own abilities
humanistic perspectives
views of personality that stress the person's capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose a destiny, and positive qualities
maslow
humanistic psychology as "third force" p415
rodgers
self-concept p416
self-concept
a central theme in rogers and other humanists view; self-concept refers to individuals' overall perceptions and assessments of their abilities, behavior, and personalities.
rodger's three methods for a more positive self-concept
unconditional positive regard, empathy, and genuiness
unconditional positive regard
rodger's term for accepting, valuing, and being positive toward another person regardless of the person's behavior
empathy
being a sensitive listener and understanding another's true feelings
genuine
being open with our feelings and dropping our pretenses and facades
trait
enduring personality characteristic that tends to lead to certain behaviors
Hippocrates's four basic personalities
choleric, phlegmatic, sanguine, melancholic
trait theories
state that personality consist of broad, enduring dispositions (traits) that tend to lead to characteristic responses) p418
Allport
father of american personality psychology p418
lexical approach
pulling out all the words that can be used to describe a person
factor analysis
cattell p419 looking for underlying structures and characteristics to account for lexical approach overlap
set the stage for the five-factor model
norman p419
big five factors of personality
the "supertraits" that are thought to describe the main dimensions of personality - specifically, neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness OCEAN p419
cohort effect
the possibility that people in the same generation share some common characteristics because of their similar history and differ systematically from other generations
personological and life story perspectives
approaches to personality emphasizing that that way to understand the person is to focus on his or her life history and life story-aspects that distinguish that individual from all others
murray
p423
murray's definition of personality
the study of the whole person
winter
p424
mcadams
life story approach to identity
life story approach
each of us has a unique life story that represents our memories of what makes us who we are
social cognitive perspectives
approaches to personality, emphasizing conscious awareness, beliefs, expectations, and goals; sc psychologists explore the person's ability to reason; to think about the past, present, and futures, and to reflect on the self.
skinner personality
believerd that were was no such thing. emphasized behavior and felt that internal mental states were irrelevant to psychology p425
bandura
took the basic tenets of behaviorism and added a recognition of the role of mental processes in determining behavior p425
bandura's social cognitive theory p 425
states that behavior, environment, and person/congnitive factore as all important in understanding personality.
reciprocal determinism p425
bandura's term describing the way behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors interact to create personality
who believes that observationsal learning is a key aspect of how we learn
bandura
self-efficacy
the belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes
mischel p427
critique of the idea of consistency, CAPS
personality and assessment
mischel's book that nearly ended the psychological study of personality
cross-situational consistency
a person should behave consistently in different situations
situationism
the idea that personality and behavior often vary considerably from one context to another
cognitive affective processing systems p428
according to mischel, a set of interconnected cognitive systems through which an individual's thoughts and emotions about self and the world become linked in ways that matter to behavior; bottom up approach (concerned with how the personality works, not what it is)
caps crit p428
caps crit
self-report test (also called objective or inventory p429
directly asks people whether specific items (usually true/false or agree/disagree) describe their personality traits
neuroticism extraversion openness personality inventory revised p429
neo-pi-r
face validity
the extent to which a test item appears to be valid to those who are completing it; a test item has face validity if it seems on the surface to fit the trait in question
empirically keyed tests
a type of test that presents a host of questionnaire items to groups of people who are already known to differ in some central way (such as individuals with a psychological disorder verses mentally healthy individuals
minnesota multiphastic personality inventory (MMPI)
the most wides used and researched empirically keyed self-report personality test; initially constructed to assess abnormal personality tendencies and improve the diagnosis of people with personality disorders; also predicts job candidates and careers
projective test
presents individuals with anbiguous stimulus and then asks them to describe it or tell a story about it-in other words, to project their own meaning onto it
rorschach inkblot test
a widely used projective test that uses an individual's perception of inkblots to determine his or her personality
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
a projective test designed to elicit stories that reveal something about an individual's personality
conscientiousness
might be the most important of the big five
Type A behavior pattern
a cluster of characteristics-such as being excessively competitive, hard-driven, impatient, and hostile-related to the incidence of heart disease
Type B behavior pattern
a cluster of characteristics - such as being relaxed and easy going-related to good health
seligman
views optimism as a matter of how a person explains the causes of bad events p436
learned helplessness
seligman's research which initially focused on animcals who learned to become helpless after the experienced uncontrollable negative events
hardiness
a trait characterized by a sense of commitment and control and a perception of problems as challenges rather than threats