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a pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world
views of personality as primarily unconscious (that is, beyond awareness) and as developing in stages. most psychoanalytic perspectives emphasize that early experiences with parents play a role in sculpting personality
believe that behavior is merely a surface characteristic and that to truly understand someone's personality we have to explore the symbolic meanings of behavior and the deep inner workings of the mind
Freud's model of the human personality
personality exists mostly below the level of awareness in the unconscious; Ego, superego, ID
it; constists of unconscious drives and is the individual's reservoir of psychic energy; entirely below the unconscious p409
harsh internal judge of our behavior; "conscious" that evaluates morality; somewhat conscious p410
the ego's protective methods for reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
the most powerful and pervasive defense mechanism according to Freud; the ego pushes unacceptable impulses out of awareness, back into the unconscious mind
unconscious, not unhealthy when used in moderation; the way for the ego to survive in a stressful world p411
according to freud, the parts of the body that have especially strong pleasure-giving qualities at particular stages of development
a young boy's intense desire to replace his father and enjoy the affections of his mother
psychic time-out/intermission; Freud considered not important, but we know it is extremely important
the psychoanalytic defense mechanism that occurs when the individual remains locked in an earlier developmental stage
rejected the classical psychoanalytic concepts that anatomy is destiny and cautioned that some of Freud's ideas were only hypothesis p413
the impersonal, deepest layer of the unconscous mind, shared by all human beings because of their common ancestral past
emotionally laden ideas and images that have rich and symbolic meaning for all people; the collective unconscious is expressed through this
people are motivated by purposes and goals and as striving for perfection over pleasure
Adler's term for the individual's attempt to overcome imagined or real inferiorities or weaknesses by developing one's own abilities
views of personality that stress the person's capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose a destiny, and positive qualities
a central theme in rogers and other humanists view; self-concept refers to individuals' overall perceptions and assessments of their abilities, behavior, and personalities.
rodger's three methods for a more positive self-concept
unconditional positive regard, empathy, and genuiness
unconditional positive regard
rodger's term for accepting, valuing, and being positive toward another person regardless of the person's behavior
state that personality consist of broad, enduring dispositions (traits) that tend to lead to characteristic responses) p418
cattell p419 looking for underlying structures and characteristics to account for lexical approach overlap
big five factors of personality
the "supertraits" that are thought to describe the main dimensions of personality - specifically, neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness OCEAN p419
the possibility that people in the same generation share some common characteristics because of their similar history and differ systematically from other generations
personological and life story perspectives
approaches to personality emphasizing that that way to understand the person is to focus on his or her life history and life story-aspects that distinguish that individual from all others
life story approach
each of us has a unique life story that represents our memories of what makes us who we are
social cognitive perspectives
approaches to personality, emphasizing conscious awareness, beliefs, expectations, and goals; sc psychologists explore the person's ability to reason; to think about the past, present, and futures, and to reflect on the self.
believerd that were was no such thing. emphasized behavior and felt that internal mental states were irrelevant to psychology p425
took the basic tenets of behaviorism and added a recognition of the role of mental processes in determining behavior p425
bandura's social cognitive theory p 425
states that behavior, environment, and person/congnitive factore as all important in understanding personality.
reciprocal determinism p425
bandura's term describing the way behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors interact to create personality
the idea that personality and behavior often vary considerably from one context to another
cognitive affective processing systems p428
according to mischel, a set of interconnected cognitive systems through which an individual's thoughts and emotions about self and the world become linked in ways that matter to behavior; bottom up approach (concerned with how the personality works, not what it is)
self-report test (also called objective or inventory p429
directly asks people whether specific items (usually true/false or agree/disagree) describe their personality traits
the extent to which a test item appears to be valid to those who are completing it; a test item has face validity if it seems on the surface to fit the trait in question
empirically keyed tests
a type of test that presents a host of questionnaire items to groups of people who are already known to differ in some central way (such as individuals with a psychological disorder verses mentally healthy individuals
minnesota multiphastic personality inventory (MMPI)
the most wides used and researched empirically keyed self-report personality test; initially constructed to assess abnormal personality tendencies and improve the diagnosis of people with personality disorders; also predicts job candidates and careers
presents individuals with anbiguous stimulus and then asks them to describe it or tell a story about it-in other words, to project their own meaning onto it
rorschach inkblot test
a widely used projective test that uses an individual's perception of inkblots to determine his or her personality
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
a projective test designed to elicit stories that reveal something about an individual's personality
Type A behavior pattern
a cluster of characteristics-such as being excessively competitive, hard-driven, impatient, and hostile-related to the incidence of heart disease
Type B behavior pattern
a cluster of characteristics - such as being relaxed and easy going-related to good health
seligman's research which initially focused on animcals who learned to become helpless after the experienced uncontrollable negative events
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