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What terms are used to describe solutions with different amounts of solute?
The terms that are used to describe solutions with different amounts are saturated, unsaturated, or supersaturated solutions.
List three facts that affect solubility.
1) polarity of a solvent
2) temperature
3) pressure
What are three ways to measure the concentration of a solution.
1) percent by volume
2) percent by mass
3) molarity
What is the effect of pressure on the solubility of a gas?
Increasing the pressure on a gas increases it's solubility in a liquid.
Compare a 2-molar solution of salt water with a 2-molar solution of sugar water. How are they similar? How are they different?
They have the same amount of moles, but different mass in solute. Different mass concentration (density).
How would you figure out the solubility of an unknown solid in water?
First you measure the mass of the beaker with 100 grams of water. Second, add the solute. Third, stir till it is dissolved. Fourth, measure it again. Lastly, subtract mass of beaker and then you'll have your solute's mass.
Despite the name, dry cleaning does involve the use of liquid solvents. Why would a dry cleaner use both polar and nonpolar cleaning solvents?
They use both so they can remove both polar and nonpolar stains. So it can attract all of it's dirt.
List three general properties of acids.
1) Sour taste
2) react with metal
3) can turn blue litmus paper red
4) proton donors
5) produces hydronium ions
List three general properties of bases.
1) Bitter taste
2) produce hydroxide ions
3) proton acceptor
4) can turn red litmus paper blue
5) slippery feel
What are two produces of a neutralization reaction?
Salt and water
What are the proton donor and the proton acceptor definitions of acids and bases?
Acid = donor
Bases = acceptor
What ion is present in all common acid solutions?
Hydronium ions
Commercials of antacids often claim these products neutralize stomach acids. Antacids are bases. Think of an analogy for the way in which antacids neutralize acids.
Bases cancel out the acids. (Like negative and positive numbers)
In the following equation, which reactant is a proton donor? Which is a proton acceptor?
HNO3 + H2O ------> H3O^+ + NO3^-
NO3 is the proton donor, and H30 is the proton acceptor. The H moves with H2O to form H3O. This transaction makes it positive and NO3 negative.
What is the term for strong solution?
Concentrated solution
What is the term for the temperature at which a liquid changes into a solid?
Freezing point
What is the term for the raising the boiling point of a liquid solvent by adding solute?
boiling point elevation
What is the term for able to dissolve?
soluble
What is the term for a molecule in which one end has a positive charge and the other end has a negative charge?
polar molecule
What is the term for a solution containing all the solute it can hold at a given temperature?
saturated solution
What is the term for change of a liquid to a gas at the surface of the liquid?
evaporation
What is the term for "go into solution"?
dissolve
What is the term for a substance that is dissolved?
solute
What is the term for the temperature at which a liquid changes into a gas?
boiling point
What is the term for the amount of a substance that will dissolve in 100 grams of a solvent at a given temperature?
solubility
What is the term for the process of heating a liquid until it evaporates and then cooling the gas until it condenses back into a liquid?
distillation
What is the term for "not able to dissolve"?
insoluble
What is the term for a weak solution?
dilute solution
What is the term for a solution that contains less solute then it can hold at a given temperature?
unsaturated solution
What is the term for lowering the freezing point of a solvent by adding a solute?
freezing point depression
What is the term for a mixture in which one substance is evenly mixed with another substance?
solution
What is the term for a substance in which a substance dissolves?
solvent
What is the term for a solution containing more solute then it can normally hold at that temperature?
supersaturated solution
What is the term for the change of a gas to a liquid?
condensation
In a salt water solution, which is the solute and which is the solvent?
salt is the solute and water is the solvent.
In a sugar water solution, which is that solute and which is the solvent?
sugar is the solute and water is the solvent.
In soda, which is that solute and which is the solvent?
Carbon dioxide is that solute and water is the solvent
In water droplets in the air, which is that solute and which is the solvent?
water is the solute and air is the solvent.
In coffee, which is that solute and which is the solvent?
coffee grounds are the solute and water is the solvent.