27 terms

Chapter 10 Vocabulary - Mendel & Meiosis

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Heredity
the passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring
Traits
characteristics that are inherited
Genetics
the branch of biology that studies heredity
Gametes
male and female sex cells
Fertilization
the male gamete unites with the female gamete
Zygote
a fertilized cell
Pollination
the transfer of pollen grains from a male reproductive organ to a female reproductive organ in a plant
Hybrid
the offspring of parents that have different forms of a trait
Alleles
different gene forms
Dominant
the observed trait
Recessive
the trait that disappeared
Law of Segregation
States that every individual has two alleles of each gene and when gametes are produced each gamete receives one of these alleles.
Phenotype
the way an organism looks and behaves
Geneotype
the allele combination an organism contains
Homozygous
two alleles for the trait are the same, ex. TT or tt
Heterozygous
two alleles for the trait differ from each other, ex. Tt
Law of Independent Assortment
states that genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other, i.e. seed shape & seed color
Diploid
a cell with two of each kind of chromosome
Haploid
A cell containing one of each kind of chromosome
Homologous Chromosomes
the two chromosomes of each pair in a diploid cell
Meiosis
(another form of cell dividion that allows offspring to have the same number of chromosomes as their parents) cell division, which produces gametes (sex cells) containing half the number of chromosomes as a parent's body cell
Sperm
male gametes
Eggs
female gametes
Sexual Reproduction
pattern of reproduction that involves the production and subsequent fusion of haploid sex cells
Crossing Over
exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids from homologous chromosomes during prophase 1 of meiosis
Genetic Recombination
the reassortment of chromosomes and the genetic information they carry, either by crossing over or by independent segregation of homologous chromosomes
Nondisjunction
the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis