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mammary gland, fur and hair, warm-blooded, live birth, specialized teeth

mammalian traits

mammary gland

an organ found in all female mammals that produces milk for mothers to nurse their young; one of mammalian traits; "mamm" in mammal refers to it

monotremes, marsupials, placentals

3 groups of mammals


a type of mammal where the baby develops in laid eggs (e.g. platypus)


a type of mammal where the baby is forced from the inside of the mother and finishes developing in a pouch (e.g. wombats, kangaroos, koalas)


a type of mammal where the baby develops from a placenta inside a mother (e.g. rodents, carnivores, ungulates, cetaceans, primates)


hoofed mammals like deer and horses


aquatic mammals like dolphins or whales

prosimians, monkeys, apes, humans

primate groups suited for "arboreal life"


latin root meaning tree


type of primate with big eyes (e.g. lemur)

old world monkeys, new world monkeys

two types of monkeys that were split up after Pangaea broke apart; each evolved differently in separate environments

old world monkeys

in Africa; don't have tails because after climate change, there were no longer trees in Africa

new world monkeys

in South America, have tails

arms and legs, large, complex brain, flatter face, reduced reproductive rate

evolutionary advancements shared by primates

arms and legs

one of evolutionary advancements shared by primates; ball and socket joints improve movement/versatility; the fact that the 5th digit is opposable improves grasping abilities

large, complex brain

one of evolutionary advancements shared by primates; humans have the biggest one within the primates; enables primates to do more things

flatter face

one of evolutionary advancements shared by primates; shows smell is less important; gives us greater field of view (binocular field) since eyes are in front

binocular vision

more peripheral vision, 3d, better depth perception; aka. stereoscopic vision

reduced reproductive rate

one of evolutionary advancements shared by primates; nature over reproduces because most won't make it; mammals don't because they care for their young

evolution of primates

described by the tree-like shrew of 65 mya giving way to promisians and anthropoids


line that leads to man; consists of monkeys, apes, great apes, and hominids


latin root meaning man


latin root meaning like


gibbons are examples of _____

great apes

orangutans, gorillas, and chimpanzees are examples of _____


category including humans and all extinct forms of man (i.e. Austropithecines, early form of Homo, Neandertals, Cro-Magnon, and Modern man)


great apes and hominids


another latin root meaning man


percentage of genes we share with great apes


the percent representing the only difference between homonids and great apes

larger cranial capacity, s-shaped spine vs. c-shaped spine, bowl pelvis vs. flat-long pelvis, aligned toes with arch vs. opposable toes with flat foot, smaller jaws vs. larger jaws, bipedalism vs. quadrupedalism

differences between homonids and great apes

7 mya

date of oldest forms of hominids


latin root meaning southern


latin root meaning ape


latin root meaning valley


first form of hominid

4 mya

date of the oldest fossils of australopithecines

3 1/2 - 4 ft. tall, a lot of fur

characteristics of australopithecines

graceful form, robust form

2 forms of australopithecines


an australopithecines afarensis of the graceful form

3.2 mya

date of Lucy's fossils

400 cc

Lucy's brain capacity

homo habilis, homo erectus, homo neanderthalensis, homo sapiens

first homo individuals

brain capacity at least 600 cc

criteria to be in homo category

homo habilis

literally handy man; have found sharpened stones with fossils that were probably used for tools (1st to use tools)

2.2 mya

date of homo habilis fossils

800 cc

brain capacity of homo habilis

homo erectus

literally upright man; first to travel out of Africa; must have had some kind of weapon for protection; carbon remains near fossils suggests they must have had the knowledge of fire

1.8 mya

date of homo erectus fossils

1000 cc

brain capacity of homo erectus

homo neanderthalensis

one of homo individuals; fossils found in Germany; hairy; over-sized features; had bigger brains than what we have today but didn't know how to use them

200,000 years ago

date of homo neaderthalensis fossils

1400 cc

brain capacity of homo neaderthalensis

homo sapiens

literally wise men; smaller brain than homo neanderthalensis but more potential of using it

200,000 years ago - present day

dates of homo sapiens fossils

1350 cc

brain capacity of homo sapiens


earliest homo sapiens; most likely co-existed with homo neanderthalensis before eradicating them through warfare


first to state that all humans evolved from ancient ancestors correctly


scientist to uncover the most complete and famous ancient hominid in 1974


African country where Lucy was unearthed

3.2 mya

approximate age for the fossil remains of Lucy


percentage of Lucy's skeleton that was uncovered


structure from Lucy's skeletons that most suggests she was bipedal

Mary Leakey

scientist most famous for her fossils found at Laetoli in 1978


type of fossils found at Laetoli

3.5 mya

approximate date of when Laetoli traces were first created

they were bipedal and social

two things that these Laetoli traces prove


name of the natural disaster 3.7 mya that made these traces possible


date for the most recent and greatest fossil findings

hope of life

literal interpretation of Toumai

7 mya

the 6 Toumai skull fragments date back this far


the Toumai skull fragments are _____ times older than Lucy

smarter than competition, suited to environment, luck

three reasons why current humans have not become extinct


African country where Toumai skull found


African country where Laetoli footprints found


adjective meaning "grasping"

7 mya

date for the oldest bipedal fossils, so far

15 mya

date for the first hominoid fossils

brow ridge

strong bony projection of the forehead, above the eyes, in gorillas and in Lucy

sagittal crest

a bony ridge running across the top of a skull for muscle attachment

45 mya

date for the first anthropoid fossils

65 mya

date for the first prosimian fossils

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