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Honors Bio: Ch. 32

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mammary gland, fur and hair, warm-blooded, live birth, specialized teeth
mammalian traits
mammary gland
an organ found in all female mammals that produces milk for mothers to nurse their young; one of mammalian traits; "mamm" in mammal refers to it
monotremes, marsupials, placentals
3 groups of mammals
monotremes
a type of mammal where the baby develops in laid eggs (e.g. platypus)
marsupials
a type of mammal where the baby is forced from the inside of the mother and finishes developing in a pouch (e.g. wombats, kangaroos, koalas)
placentals
a type of mammal where the baby develops from a placenta inside a mother (e.g. rodents, carnivores, ungulates, cetaceans, primates)
ungulates
hoofed mammals like deer and horses
cetaceans
aquatic mammals like dolphins or whales
prosimians, monkeys, apes, humans
primate groups suited for "arboreal life"
arbor
latin root meaning tree
prosimians
type of primate with big eyes (e.g. lemur)
old world monkeys, new world monkeys
two types of monkeys that were split up after Pangaea broke apart; each evolved differently in separate environments
old world monkeys
in Africa; don't have tails because after climate change, there were no longer trees in Africa
new world monkeys
in South America, have tails
arms and legs, large, complex brain, flatter face, reduced reproductive rate
evolutionary advancements shared by primates
arms and legs
one of evolutionary advancements shared by primates; ball and socket joints improve movement/versatility; the fact that the 5th digit is opposable improves grasping abilities
large, complex brain
one of evolutionary advancements shared by primates; humans have the biggest one within the primates; enables primates to do more things
flatter face
one of evolutionary advancements shared by primates; shows smell is less important; gives us greater field of view (binocular field) since eyes are in front
binocular vision
more peripheral vision, 3d, better depth perception; aka. stereoscopic vision
reduced reproductive rate
one of evolutionary advancements shared by primates; nature over reproduces because most won't make it; mammals don't because they care for their young
evolution of primates
described by the tree-like shrew of 65 mya giving way to promisians and anthropoids
anthropoids
line that leads to man; consists of monkeys, apes, great apes, and hominids
anthro
latin root meaning man
poid
latin root meaning like
apes
gibbons are examples of _____
great apes
orangutans, gorillas, and chimpanzees are examples of _____
hominids
category including humans and all extinct forms of man (i.e. Austropithecines, early form of Homo, Neandertals, Cro-Magnon, and Modern man)
hominoids
great apes and hominids
homo
another latin root meaning man
98%
percentage of genes we share with great apes
2%
the percent representing the only difference between homonids and great apes
larger cranial capacity, s-shaped spine vs. c-shaped spine, bowl pelvis vs. flat-long pelvis, aligned toes with arch vs. opposable toes with flat foot, smaller jaws vs. larger jaws, bipedalism vs. quadrupedalism
differences between homonids and great apes
7 mya
date of oldest forms of hominids
australo
latin root meaning southern
pithecus
latin root meaning ape
ensis
latin root meaning valley
australopithecines
first form of hominid
4 mya
date of the oldest fossils of australopithecines
3 1/2 - 4 ft. tall, a lot of fur
characteristics of australopithecines
graceful form, robust form
2 forms of australopithecines
Lucy
an australopithecines afarensis of the graceful form
3.2 mya
date of Lucy's fossils
400 cc
Lucy's brain capacity
homo habilis, homo erectus, homo neanderthalensis, homo sapiens
first homo individuals
brain capacity at least 600 cc
criteria to be in homo category
homo habilis
literally handy man; have found sharpened stones with fossils that were probably used for tools (1st to use tools)
2.2 mya
date of homo habilis fossils
800 cc
brain capacity of homo habilis
homo erectus
literally upright man; first to travel out of Africa; must have had some kind of weapon for protection; carbon remains near fossils suggests they must have had the knowledge of fire
1.8 mya
date of homo erectus fossils
1000 cc
brain capacity of homo erectus
homo neanderthalensis
one of homo individuals; fossils found in Germany; hairy; over-sized features; had bigger brains than what we have today but didn't know how to use them
200,000 years ago
date of homo neaderthalensis fossils
1400 cc
brain capacity of homo neaderthalensis
homo sapiens
literally wise men; smaller brain than homo neanderthalensis but more potential of using it
200,000 years ago - present day
dates of homo sapiens fossils
1350 cc
brain capacity of homo sapiens
Cro-magnons
earliest homo sapiens; most likely co-existed with homo neanderthalensis before eradicating them through warfare
Darwin
first to state that all humans evolved from ancient ancestors correctly
Johanson
scientist to uncover the most complete and famous ancient hominid in 1974
Ethiopia
African country where Lucy was unearthed
3.2 mya
approximate age for the fossil remains of Lucy
40%
percentage of Lucy's skeleton that was uncovered
pelvis
structure from Lucy's skeletons that most suggests she was bipedal
Mary Leakey
scientist most famous for her fossils found at Laetoli in 1978
traces
type of fossils found at Laetoli
3.5 mya
approximate date of when Laetoli traces were first created
they were bipedal and social
two things that these Laetoli traces prove
volcano
name of the natural disaster 3.7 mya that made these traces possible
2002
date for the most recent and greatest fossil findings
hope of life
literal interpretation of Toumai
7 mya
the 6 Toumai skull fragments date back this far
2
the Toumai skull fragments are _____ times older than Lucy
smarter than competition, suited to environment, luck
three reasons why current humans have not become extinct
Chad
African country where Toumai skull found
Tanzania
African country where Laetoli footprints found
prehensil
adjective meaning "grasping"
7 mya
date for the oldest bipedal fossils, so far
15 mya
date for the first hominoid fossils
brow ridge
strong bony projection of the forehead, above the eyes, in gorillas and in Lucy
sagittal crest
a bony ridge running across the top of a skull for muscle attachment
45 mya
date for the first anthropoid fossils
65 mya
date for the first prosimian fossils