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108 terms

Chemistry Final

STUDY
PLAY
chemistry
the study of matter and the changes it can undergo
scientific method
observation
hypothesis
experiments prove disprove
publication further experiments
conformation
application
basic science
research without the goal of a practical application
applied science
research with well defined, short terms goals for a specific problem
technology
application of science for industrial production and societal goals
macroscopic
large enough to be visible to the naked eye
microscopic
too small to be seen except under a microscope
submicroscopic
cannot see even w/ microscope; atoms and molecules
mass
is a measure of the amount or quantity of matter in an object
weight
is the force that results from the attraction between matter and the earth
intensive property
properties that are independent of the amount of the sample
extensive property
depends on the size of the sample
elements
a pure substance consisting of only one kind of atom (ex copper) and can't be decompressed into simpler substances by normal chemical means
atoms
smallest unit of an element
chemical compound
pure substances composed of atoms of different elements combined in definite, fixed ratios. And can be decomposed into simpler substances or elements by chemical means
hydrogen
flammable when burned in the presence of oxygen
homogeneous
uniform in composition (milk)
heterogeneous
not uniform in compostion (water and oil)
chemical property
properties that result in a chemical reaction converting the identity of one or more of the substances (flammability, anti-inflammatories, biodegradable)
physical property
properties that can be observed or measured with out changing the identity of the substances (boiling point, melting point, density, color)
chemical change
process in which one or more pure substances are converted to one or more different pure substances
physical change
process where the identity of the substance remains intact
products
substances formed as the result of a chemical reaction
molecule
the smallest unit fo a chemical compound; the simplest structural unit of an element or compound
molecule compound
c, a chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules
energy
the capacity of doing work or causing change
potential energy
energy in storage by virtue of position or arrangement
kinetic energy
the energy of objects in motion
subscripts
in a chemical formulas, numbers written below the line to show numbers or ratios of atoms in a compound
coefficients
in a chemical equation are the numbers written before formulas to balance the equation
quantitative
describes information or experiments that are numerical
qualitative
describes information or experiments that are not numerical
unit conversion factor
a fraction in which the numerator is a quality equal or equivalent to the quantity in the denominator, but expressed in different units
accuracy
is the term used to express the agreement of the measured value with the true value of the same quantity
precision
expresses the agreement among repeated measurements
atomic number
the number of proton in the nucleus of an atom (bottoms left number)
mass number
is the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus (top left number
ions
electrically charged atoms that have gained or lost electrons.
atomic mass unit
the unit of relative atomic massess of the elements
atomic weight
the number that represents the (weighted average) atomic mass of the isotopes in a given element (bottom number)
atomic orbitals
the regions around the nucleus within which the electrons have the highest probability of being found
subshells
In the electron configuration they are s (2 e- and 1 orbital), p (6 e- and 3 orbitals), d (10 e- and 5 orbitals) and f (14 e- and 7 orbitals)
aufbau principle
an electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it
valence orbitals
orbitals that contain the outer-shell electrons of an atom
valence electrons
electrons on the outermost energy level of an atom
metals
element that conduct electric current; most are malleable and ductile
nonmetals
elements that do not conduct electrical currents
semiconductors
metalloid elements with electrical conductivity intermediate between that of metals and nonmetals. Used in solid-state electronics
alkaline earth metals
reactive but not has much as alkali metals group 2
reactivity
for metals is related to size, the larger the atom the more reactive it becomes, for nonmetals the opposite is true
Henri Becquerel
experimented with phosphorescence of certain minerals
Earnest Rutherford
Found that alpha rays could be stopped by thin pieces of paper. Whereas beta rays were only stopped by at least .5cm of lead
Paul Villard
discovered the high energy, extremely penetrating gamma ray having characteristics of light waves. Very damaging to human issue.
radioactivity
the result of a natural change of an isotope of one element into an isotope of a different element resulting in a nuclear reaction.
radio cardon dating
determining the age of a sample using carbon-14 isotope
food radiation
retards the growth of organisms such as molds,bacteria, and yeasts
diagnosis
radioisotopes are inserted into patients body allowing na image to be produced of the problem area.
binary compound
chemical compound composed of one metal and one nonmetal
bonding pair
pair of electrons shared between 2 atoms in a molecule
nonbonding pair
unshared pair of valence electrons in a molecule
lewis dot symbols
the valence electrons, represented by dots, are placed around the symbol until they are used up or unti all 4 sides are occupied
single covalent bond
hydrogen atoms share their single electron giving them an electron configuration like helium
hydrocarbons
compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen
alkanes
hydrocarbons with carbon-carbon single bonds
saturated hydrocarbons
hydrocarbons that are alkanes
hydrocarbon single bonds
one carbon and 4 hydrogen atoms will share electrons to achieve noble gas configuration
double bond
a bond in which 2 pairs of electrons are shared between atoms
triple bond
a bond in which 3 pairs of electrons are shared between atoms
non-polar
describes a bond or molecule in which charge is evenly distributed, with no positive or negative regions
polar
describes a bond or molecule in which charge is unevenly distributed, creating positive and negative regions. Based on differences in electronegativity.
electrolyte
a compound that conducts electricity when melted or dissolved in water
non-electrolyte
a compound that does not conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water, or does not separate into ions in water
intermolecular forces
attractive forces that act between molecules; weaker than covalent bonds
dipole-dipole forces
attractive forces between polar molecules
hydrogen bonding
attraction between a hydrogen atom bonded to a highly electronegative atom (O, N, F) and an electronegative atom in another r the same molecule
solid
Fixed shape and fixed volume, non-compressible, very strong intermolecular
liquids
variable shape but fixed volume, compressible, weak intermolecular forces
reaction rate
amount of reactant converted to product in a specific amount of time
activation energy
Quantity of energy needed for successful collision of reactants; determines reaction rate.
dynamic equilibrium
a state of balance between opposite changes occurring at the same rate
chemical equilibrium
condition in which a chemical reaction and its reverse are occurring at equal rates
physical equilibrium
when the rate at which a substance changes between physical states is constant
Le Chatelier's principle
When a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the equilibrium shifts to relieve the stress
exothermic
(of a chemical reaction or compound) occurring or formed with the release of energy as heat
endothermic
(of a chemical reaction or compound) occurring only with energy as heat from an external source
entropy
a measure of the disorder of matter. If a change in entropy results in a more disordered state the entropy is said to be positive
thermodynamics
the science of energy as heat and its transformation
First Law of Thermodynamics
energy can be converted from one form to another but cannot be created or destroyed
Second Law of Thermodynamics
The total entropy of the universe is constantly increasing
oxidation
the gain of oxygen, the loss of hydrogen, or the loss of electrons
reduction
the loss of oxygen, the gain of hydrogen, or the gain of electrons
isomers
two or more compounds with the same molecular formula but different arrangements of atoms
structural isomers
isomers that differ in the order in which the atoms are bonded together
alkyl groups
alkanes with hydrogen atom removed and are attracted to a straight chain hydrocarbon
alkenes
hydrocarbons with one or more carbon-carbon double bonds
polymers
are classified by the reactions by which they were formed
addition polymers
when all atoms in the monomers are incorporated into the polymer
condensation polymer
a polymer formed by repeated condensation reactions of one or more monomers
polyethylene
produced the ethylene
polyester
is a polymer made from a molecule with 2 carboxylic acid and a molecule with 2 alcohols
nylon
is a polymer made from a di-acid and a di-amine
alcohols
organic compounds containing a hydroxyl (OH) functional group
functional group
atom or groups of atoms in a molecule that gives the substance a characteristic chemical behavior
aldehydes
organic compounds containing a -CHO functional group
carboxylic acids
organic compounds containing a -COOH functional group
Ketones
organic compounds containing a -C=O (carbonyl) functional group between two carbon atoms
fuels
are reduced forms of matter which burn easily in the presence of oxygen producing large quantities of heat
heat
is a form of energy which can be used to do work