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Classical Conditioning

Learning by association.

Unconditioned Stimulus

Something you respond to naturally without learning it.

Unconditioned Response

Your behavior/reaction to an unconditioned stimulus.

Neutral Stimulus

No particular response to.

Conditioned Stimulus

Something you have to learn to response to.

Conditioned Response

What you have learnt to do from the conditioned stimulus.


Unconditioned stimulus and neutral stimulus presented at the same time.

Operant Conditioning

Learning by consequences that follow.


Makes a behavior stronger. More likely to see that behavior again.

Positive Reinforcement

Doing a behavior and receiving a reward. Makes behavior stronger, more likely to repeat it.

Negative Reinforcement

Doing a behavior and receiving a reward by the aversive thing getting taken away.

STUDY: Schaffer and Emerson (1964)

* Observation study - went into children's homes and observed they're attachment behaviors.
* Studied them every month for 1st year, then came back once more when 18 months old. Looking specifically at separation from carer and reaction to strangers.
* 40% of cases the carer who fed, bathe etc was not the person the baby formed a primary attachment with. Would have expected the opposite. :-(
* Evidence for forming multiple attachments and care-giver sensitivity :-)

STUDY: Harlow (1959)

Cloth Mother, Wire Mother...
* Isolated baby monkeys from birth. In cage were two fake mothers: 1. Made of wire, able to fed milk. 2. Made of cloth, unable to fed milk.
* Observed behavior of monkeys with the fake mothers. Then frightened monkeys to see who it ran too for comfort.
* Monkeys ran too cloth mother. Spent most of time with it.
* Evidence for 'contact comfort' as appose to food.
:-( Cannot prove that actually formed a bond. High ethically incorrect.
:-) Evidence for contact comfort.

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